Category Archives: Issue 0002

ベトナムの竈神と竈 ーアンリ・オジェ編纂の版画を中心にー








はじめに

 竈神はベトナム・キン族(越族)にとって家族を守る重要な神として信仰され、現在も毎年陰暦12月23日には各家庭で竈神を天に見送る儀礼が行われている。中国の影響を受ける竈神はベトナムでは三柱からなる「オンタオ(翁竈)」として都市部や村落に関係なく広く祀られている。その一方で祀り方は地域により異なりをみせる。この三柱のもとになっているのは、ベトナムで使用されてきた竈(煮炊き用の道具)が関係していると考える。

 竈神はベトナム・キン族(越族)にとって家族を守る重要な神として信仰され、現在も毎年陰暦12月23日には各家庭で竈神を天に見送る儀礼が行われている。中国の影響を受ける竈神はベトナムでは三柱からなる「オンタオ(翁竈)」として都市部や村落に関係なく広く祀られている。その一方で祀り方は地域により異なりをみせる。この三柱のもとになっているのは、ベトナムで使用されてきた竈(煮炊き用の道具)が関係していると考える。

これまで竈や焜炉などベトナムの台所道具についての研究や道具と竈神の関わりに言及した研究は管見の限り見当たらない。フランス人研究者アンリ・オジェは、20世紀初頭に北部地域の人々の生活や技術を調査し版画に残している。そのなかに家庭での煮炊きや竈神を祀る様子などが含まれている。貴重な資料であり、この版画はさまざまな場面で引用されてきたが、これまで体系的な整理はされていない。

本稿では、オジェ編纂の版画を中心に、実用品としての竈と竈神を祀る儀礼がどのように描かれているかを整理する。そしてベトナムのなかでもより古い竈神儀礼の形式を継承しているフエ地域の事例を提示し、現在の竈神の信仰とどのように結びついているのかという視点からベトナムの竈神と竈について論じてみたい。

1.ベトナムの竈神と竈について 

(1)ベトナムの竈神とは 

三柱の竈神は、「ハイオン・モッバー(Hai ông một bà)」である。ハイオンは2人の男性、モッバーは1人の女性という意味で、男神二柱(両側に配置)・女神一柱(中央)からなる竈神がベトナムでは信仰されている。この三柱の竈神の由来は昔話で語られ、人々に広く知られている[1]。中国の竈神の影響を受けながらも土着の信仰と融合し、ベトナム独自の「オンタオ」という竈神を形成してきた。一方でその祀り方は地域によって多様である。以下に現在の地域の竈神を祀る儀礼の特徴を簡単に説明しておく。

北部地域では、ほとんどの家の竈神は台所ではなく祖先の祭壇で祀られている[1]。祭壇の中央に置かれた香炉で、土公と呼ばれる土地神とともに祀られている。日常的にはあまり竈神の存在は大きくないが、1年に1度の儀礼は他の地域と比べても盛大である。供物の数も多く、マー(mã)とよばれる紙の冥器を大量に燃やして天に送る。マーには竈神三柱用の冠と靴が用意され、また竈神は鯉に乗って天に昇ると考えられているため、川や池に鯉が放生される。

中南部地域では、竈神は台所に作られた祭壇で祀られる。中部クアンナム省ホイアンや南部ホーチミン市やその近郊では、竈神の祭壇に、「定福灶君」と書かれた神牌が置かれている家が多い。1日・15日に果物や水を供えて祀り、日常的に竈神は家族と近い存在にある。それとは対照的に綺麗は、供物もマーも少なく非常にシンプルである。鯉の放生も行わない。「定福灶君」の神牌の交換は行っていない。

旧王都であった中部フエ地域の竈神は、前述した内容とは異なる。古い儀礼を継承しつつ独自の展開をしている。フエ地域については、オジェ編纂の版画に記された竈神と竈との現在の関わりとして後述したい。

(2)ベトナムの竈とは

ここでは、ベトナム・キン族の人々がどのような道具を使用して煮炊きをしていたのか簡単にみていきたい。

①歴史時代以前の土製支脚

土製支脚とは「炉中に三つ並べ据えて、甕・釜の類を火に懸けるための支え脚」である(小林1941:276)。この土製支脚が、「北部のドンソン期を除き、北ベトナムの先ドンソン[1]〜ドンソン文化の居住址に常出する。」とある(大林、今村、宇野1984:141)。先ドンソンの一つ、4000BP頃から3000BP頃の後期新石器時代後半期のフングエン期[2]に出土した土製支脚がハノイの歴史博物館に展示されている(図1)。

http://www.glnc.or.kr/images/GLNC_12-002-f1.png
図1:フングエン文化の土製支脚 4,000B.P- 3,000B.P 出典:ハノイ歴史博物館 (2013)

ベトナム北部を中心に分布する初期鉄器文化である、ドンソン文化の居住址からも土製支脚が出土している(図2)。多少形態は異なるが、土製の3つの支脚であることは変わらない。

②歴史時代以降の土製支脚と土製焜炉

http://www.glnc.or.kr/images/GLNC_12-002-f2.png
図2:ドンソン文化の土製支脚 紀元前3-4世紀〜紀元1世紀 出典:ハノイ歴史博物館 (2013)

歴史時代以前から大きく時間を隔てるが、17世紀から19世紀にかけて住居址から煮炊きに使用された道具が出土されている。昭和女子大学が継続的に行っている中部クアンナム省ホイアンでの考古学研究の報告書からは、ファン・チュー・チン129から2点の土製焜炉片(17世紀後半)が出土している(昭和女子大学国際文化研究所紀要 1997)。2002年に出された報告書では、ホイアン旧市街にあるファン・チュー・チン69 /5地点から7点の土製焜炉片等(18世紀)の出土が報告されている(昭和女子大学国際文化研究所紀要2002:59)。

北部ナムディン省バッコック村での村落調査の報告のなかでは、ソム (xóm) Bの XB (xómB) 地点のL4−3層から土製支脚を使用した炉址 (18世紀) が確認された(西村2011:238)。

以上の出土遺物の報告により、17−18世紀の住居では土製支脚や移動式土製焜炉が併存して実際に使用されていたことがわかる。土製支脚は、フングエン文化やドンソン文化を経て17−18世紀まで継続されていたと考えられる。

2.アンリ・オジェ編纂の版画からみる竈と竈神

フランス人アンリ・オジェは、1908-1909年にかけて約20ヶ月間、ベトナム北部地域の人々の生活を調査し、ベトナム人の日常や生活技術を版画によって記録していった。これらの版画は、ベトナム人の絵師に構図を描かせ、儒学者に漢喃で画賛を書かせ、そのうえで版画職人に依頼して完成させたものである[1](菅野 2004 : 250)。筆者の手元には、2009年に再版されたオジェ編纂の版画がある。全3巻からなり、第1巻には「安南の人たちの職業についての総合的な考察」と、版画についての解説が載せられ、第2巻と第3巻には版画が総頁700頁、1頁に3点〜7点ほど掲載されている。最初に、どのような竈が煮炊きに用いられたかをみていこう。

(1)竈 

版画のなかに土製支脚などの煮炊き道具は、26点描かれているのが確認できる(図3)。土製支脚8点、レンガを積み立てたような土製支脚1点、五徳2点(そのうち1点は土製支脚と併記)、土製焜炉7点、銅製焜炉1点、土製焜炉(南部)1点、竈7点である。少し詳しくみていくと、家での煮炊きと関連した土製支脚は、4点(3,5,6,8)である。2や4は職人の仕事で使用する大型の土製支脚のようである。9の土製支脚は洗濯屋で用いられており、レンガを組み合わせて作られた大型のものであろう。1は土製支脚を用いて飯炊きを競い合っている。この競争は現在でも北部地域の寺院の祭りで行われている。煮炊きに用いる道具をもっとも顕著に描いているのは、8の「家厨」の版画である。三つの煮炊き道具が小屋に置かれている。そのうちの二つ、中央と右側に土製支脚がある。あと一つは五徳である。北部地域では、このような台所が設置された民家が一般的であったと思われる。また、この版画から台所が家のなかに置かれておらず、別棟の小屋が作られていたことが推測できる。

http://www.glnc.or.kr/images/GLNC_12-002-f3.png
図3:オジェ編纂の版画に描かれた煮炊き道具 出典: Oger, Henri 2009(1909)

次に土製焜炉をみていきたい。7点(10,12-17)の土製焜炉は大きさの差はあるようだが、形式はほぼ同じようである。家で調理するのに使用したり、薬の調合や灯篭作りなどの仕事に使用したりしていることがわかる。11の焜炉は銅製のようであるが定かではない。また、18の版画は解説に土製焜炉とだけあるが、この形は南部地域でよく使用されているものである。

竈は7点(19-25)描かれているが、どれも家庭用ではなく、職業として食品を生産するための竈(炉)である。人々のあいだで竈が作られ使用されていたことがわかるが、家庭に普及しなかったこともまた版画から明らかである。次に竈神に関する版画をみていこう。

(2)竈神を祀る儀礼

オジェ編纂の版画のなかには、竈神を祀る儀礼の様子が描かれたものが5点ある(図4)。

http://www.glnc.or.kr/images/GLNC_12-002-f4.png
図4:オジェ編纂の版画に描かれた竈神 出典: Oger, Henri 2009(1909)

①土製支脚と五徳が手前に、その奥に香炉などが置かれている。土製支脚と五徳の前で女性がかがんだ姿で猫を連れている。解説には「灶君神(竈神)を祀る」とある。猫が竈神を祀ることと関係があるのかは不明である。また、土製支脚と五徳には薪などの燃料や灰が描かれていないため、実用品ではなく神体として置かれていると考えることもできるかもしれない。

②「灶君位」と書かれた版画である。中央に女神一柱、左右に男神二柱が描かれている。解説には、「灶君神(民間版画)Thần Táo Quân (Tranh dân gian)」とある。屋内に竈神三人が座り、外には家畜や道具などが描かれている[1]。

③上から吊るされた形の祭壇には、中央に「灶君位」と書かれた神牌が置かれている。祭壇には三つの冠:中央に女性の冠、左右には男性用の冠が祀られ、その手前には香炉、茶碗(水か酒が入っていると思われる)、小皿(何が載せられているか不明)、燭台?と花瓶?が置かれている。解説には、「吊り下げられた土公の祭壇Bàn thờ thổ công theo cao」とある。土公と記されているが、祭壇に置かれた神牌に「灶君位」とあるため竈神の祭壇である。解説で「土公の祭壇」と記された点については、ベトナム北部地域の竈神が土公と混淆されていることと関わりがあると考えられるが、ここでは特に触れないでおく[1]。

④ 土製支脚の置かれた場所で男性が穢れを洗う様子が描かれている。漢喃語が書かれており、意味は「台所で穢を洗うTẩy uế trong bếp」である。版画の解説には、「儀礼Lễ cúng」と記されているだけであり、竈神の儀礼が行われているわけではないようである。男性が手にしているのは、榊のようなものと茶碗である。土製支脚の置かれた場所で穢れを清める儀礼を行うことは注目すべきである。

⑤土製支脚や土製焜炉がいくつも木の根元に置かれている。そこへ女性が土製焜炉を置こうとしている様子が描かれている。版画には、ベトナム独自の漢字チューノム(喃字)が記されている。その言葉の意味は、「竈王の交換」である。解説には、「オンタオ(竈神)を祀るThờ ông Táo」とある。すなわち、この版画は竈神を祀る儀礼で、女性が竈神の交換として土製焜炉または土製支脚を木の下に置きに来たとみることができる。手前の円錐のような形ものが何かは不明である。

オジェ編纂による版画は、20世紀初めの北部地域の竈神を祀る儀礼の様子を非常に興味深く描いている。残念ながら簡潔な解説のため、細部に不明な点がいくつかみられる。今後、さまざまな儀礼や資料から改めて検証していくことが必要であろう。ここでは、これらの儀礼が現在どのように継承されているのだろうかという点についてみていきたい。前述したように、現在の北部地域の竈神は祖先の祭壇で香炉を神体として祀られているため、版画に描かれたような祀り方や儀礼はみられない。そこで、ベトナムのなかでも古い竈神の儀礼を継承している中部フエ地域の竈神を祀る儀礼を次にみていくことにする。

3.現在の竈神と竈      

ここからはフエ地域で行った調査をもとに、人々がどのように竈神を祀っているのか、竈神の神体と実用品としての竈を中心に述べていきたい。

(1)フエ地域の竈と台所              

現在はフエ地域でも台所にガスコンロが置かれている家が多い。近年新しく建てられる家は、ベトナムの他の多くの地域と同様に2階または3階建ての家屋で屋内に台所が作られる。フエ地域の伝統的な家屋は、平家造りで主屋の左側[1]に並列して付属屋が建てられる。その付属屋に台所が置かれている。伝統的な造りの家でも内部を改装し台所にはガスコンロが設置されている場合が多いが、なかにはもともとある地炉には五徳や焜炉、別の場所にガスコンロを置いて併用して調理に使用している家もある。また、地炉に少し壊れた土製支脚が置かれている家もある。具体的にいくつかの事例をみていきたい。

事例1 フォックティック村[1] L.Đ氏 男性 70歳(2012年当時)(2012年8月聞き取り) 

伝統的な家屋である。現在はガスコンロが置かれているが、1950年頃まで自分の家で土製支脚を作っていた。女性が初めに粘土で形を作り、その後で男性が形を整え、焼成は村の窯を使用しみんなで一緒に行っていたという。土製支脚は非常に壊れやすいため、1950年以降は五徳やオイルコンロに変え、1980年代からガスコンロを使い始めている。

事例2 フォックティック村 L.P氏 男性 50歳(2012年当時)(2012年8月聞き取り)

伝統的な家屋で、もともと炉があった場所にはガスコンロが置かれている。1985年ごろにガスコンロを使い始め、その際に付属屋を増設して新たに高台の炉を作った。そこに五徳を置き薪を燃料にして時々煮炊きをしている。大鍋などを使用するときは五徳で煮炊きをする。1980年ごろまで土製支脚を使用していた。昔は土製支脚用の型があり粘土を入れて形をつくり、焼成は村の窯を使って男女みんなで行っていた。

事例3 シン村[1]  P.H氏 男性 61歳(2016年当時)(2016年6月聞き取り) 

2016年当時、ガスコンロは使用していない。地炉に土製の焜炉と少し高い台を置いた上に土製支脚が置かれ、煮炊きに使用している。土製支脚の三つの支脚とも上半分が壊れ鉄の棒で三つの土製支脚をつなげている(図5)。祭壇は上部に置かれている。この土製支脚は同じ村に住むK.P氏の家でも2012年に見かけたが、地炉に置かれた土製支脚とは別の場所にガスコンロが置かれていた。2015年には家を改装し、地炉はそのまま残されているが土製支脚はなくなり、その代わりに五徳が置かれている。2018年も同じ状況である。

http://www.glnc.or.kr/images/GLNC_12-002-f5.png
図5:土製支脚を使用  竈神の祭壇(上)

事例4 フンホー社[1] H.K氏 男性 62歳(2016年当時)(2012年8月、2016年2月聞き取り)

1981年に家を改装したが、造りは伝統的家屋である。付属屋にある台所ではガスコンロが置かれ、調理に使用している。家を改装した1981年から高台の炉で五徳を使用し、1999年からガスコンロを使用しているという。それ以前(1980年まで)は土製支脚を使用してきたが、自分の家で作ったことはなく、市場で土製支脚を購入していたという。その時は藁や薪などの植物燃料を使用していた。

以上、四つの事例を提示したが、ガスコンロを使用している家でも30年ほど前までは土製支脚を使用していたことが人々の記憶に残っている。また、現在でも土製の焜炉や五徳を置き併用して調理をする家も珍しくなく、土製支脚が置かれている家もある。四つの事例は特別なケースではなく、フエ地域においては一般的である。次に竈神の神体についてみていこう。

(2)竈神を祀る

フエ地域の人々の多くは竈神を祀り儀礼を行っている。ここでは竈神と竈の関係が見られる事例をいくつか紹介したい。

事例5 フエ市旧市街 P.V氏 女性 37歳(2012年当時)(2012年8月聞き取り)

1987年頃まで炉に土製支脚が置かれていたという。その頃はガスコンロを使用し始めていたため、土製支脚は実際には使っていない。しかし、竈神を祀るために時々火をつけて土製支脚を温めたり、湯を沸かしたりしていた。今は小型の竈神の神像を祭壇で祀っているが、子どもの頃に実用品として土製支脚を使用していたときは、土製支脚が竈神であったという。

事例6 ディアリン村[1] V.D氏 男性 62歳(2016年当時)(2016年6月聞き取り)

V.D氏は、ディアリン村で竈神の神像を生産している。現在製作している神像は3種類で、実用品としても使用できる土製支脚、土製支脚を象った小型の神像、竈神三柱を象った小型の神像である。60年ほど前にV.D氏の父親が神像作りの仕事を始めた頃は、実用品としての土製支脚と小型の土製支脚の2種類を製作していた。三種類の神像のなかで、現在は小型の竈神三柱を象った神像を祀る人が多い。しかし、年配の人たちのなかには土製支脚が竈神であると考える人がいるため、土製支脚も生産している。V.D氏自身も竈神を正しく祀るのは土製支脚であるという。実際には、炉の脇に土製支脚が置かれ、高い場所に作られた祭壇には小型の神像が置かれ祀られている(図6)。

http://www.glnc.or.kr/images/GLNC_12-002-f6.png
図6:土製支脚(下)と竈神の祭壇(上)

事例7 フンホー村 H.N氏 男性 59歳(2012年当時)(2012年8月聞き取り)

家は新しいが伝統的家屋の造りである。主屋と左側に建てられた付属屋の奥に地炉があり、五徳と大型の缶を使った手作りのコンロが置かれている。別の場所にガスコンロがあり、2000年ごろから使用している。竈神の祭壇は地炉のある場所の高い位置に作られている。子どもの頃には地炉に土製支脚が置かれていて、その時は土製支脚が竈神だったため地炉で祀っていたという。土製支脚を使用しなくなり高い位置に祭壇を作ったが、そこでは大きな土製支脚を祀ることはできないので小型の神像を置いている。

事例8 フォックティック村 L.D氏 男性 68歳(2014年当時)(2014年9月聞き取り)

L.D氏の家の敷地には、小さな博物館が作られ、フォックティック村で使用され、また製作されてきたさまざまな陶器が展示されている。屋外には、昔の台所が再現されている(図7)。地炉には土製支脚が置かれ土鍋がその上に乗せられている。その奥に小型の土製支脚を象った神像が祀られている。L.D氏によれば、土製支脚は煮炊き用の実用品であり、大切に扱っていたが竈神の神体ではなかった。土製支脚を使用していた時から小型の神像(土製支脚を象ったもの)が置かれていたという。そして、実用品の土製支脚も神像である小型の土製支脚も儀礼の時には廟や庵、木の下などに置いて新しいものに交換していた。

http://www.glnc.or.kr/images/GLNC_12-002-f7.png
図7:昔の台所(再現)

フォックティック村は窯業の村であるため、早くに小型の竈神の神像が生産されて実用品の土製支脚とは別に祀られたと考えられる。それが多少の時間差を経て、また台所の形態が変わる過程でフエ地域のほかの村や集落に広まったと思われるが、このことはまた別の機会に取り上げたい。

(3)陰暦12月23日 フエ地域の竈神の送神儀礼

陰暦12月23日にフエ地域の人々はそれぞれの家で竈神を見送る儀礼をする。その儀礼のあとに再び、大きな木の根元や地域の廟の片隅に神像を置いて竈神を見送らなければない(Trần Đại Vinh 1995:85)。

実際に12月23日、フエの人々は家で儀礼を行ったあと、1年間祀った竈神の神像を持ち家を出て、大きな木の根元や地域の廟や庵など神聖な場所に置き見送り儀礼をする。そして家の竈神の祭壇には新しい神像が置かれる。2012年の調査では、12月23日の日付が変わると同時に家で儀礼を済ませた人々が、地域の廟にある大きな木の下に神像を置きに集まっていた。その神像は小型の竈神三柱を象ったものが多かったが、なかには三つの土製支脚もあった。煤などが付いていない綺麗な土製支脚であったことから実用品としてではなく、竈神の神体として祀っていたものだと思われる(図8)。2018年にディアリン村で神像製作の調査をした際、土製支脚を神像として製作していることからも、土製支脚を竈神として祀り儀礼のあとに交換する人々がいるのだろう。

http://www.glnc.or.kr/images/GLNC_12-002-f8.png
図8:竈神(王)の交換(現在)

4.ベトナムの竈神と竈  ーアンリ・オジェ編纂の版画を中心にー 

ベトナムの家庭で煮炊きに使用してきた竈は、鍋や釜などを三点で支える土製支脚であった。今から4000〜3000年前に出土した土製支脚は多少の形態の違いはあるものの現在も使用されている。オジェ編纂の版画からも20世紀初頭の北部地域で、土製支脚は煮炊きをする際の主要な道具であったということを読み取ることができる。版画には土製の移動式焜炉も何点か描かれており、土製支脚や焜炉を併用して調理をすることが17世紀から20世紀初頭の北部地域、現在のフエ地域において継続されてきたことが確認できる。一方、いわゆる竈、中国や韓国、日本にみられる造り付け竈は、ベトナムでは家庭での煮炊きには使用されなかった。

竈神を祀る儀礼をみてみると、版画には竈神として祀られている土製支脚と五徳が描かれている。そして、竈王の交換と書かれた版画には、木の下に土製支脚や土製の移動式焜炉が置かれている。土製支脚だけではなく五徳や焜炉もまた竈神の神体と考えていたということであろう。フエ地域では、竈神の儀礼の際に今でも土製支脚や神像が木の下に置かれて新旧の交換が行われている。家での祀り方は変わってきているが、土製支脚を実用品として使用していた頃の名残があり、実用品として使用しなくなったあとも竈神として祀っていたことを記憶している人々もいる。実用品としての使用はほとんどなくなったが、フエ地域では現在もまだ土製支脚を生産している。それは土製支脚を竈神の神体として祀っている人々が少数であるが今もいるからである。

北部地域でも以前は農村だけでなくハノイ市内でも家で土製支脚を作っていた、そして儀礼の日に土製支脚を池に捨て新しいものを置いていたという話を聞く。中部や南部地域でも以前は家で土製支脚を作っていた人々がいる。また、現在、北部地域では儀礼の際に土製支脚である竈神を象徴する三つの冠と靴をマーとして用意する。儀礼には必須の祭具である。

オジェが編纂した版画の時代20世紀初頭から現在にかけて台所の形態は変わり、それに伴い竈神の祀り方も変化してきた。特に地炉に置かれた土製支脚や土製焜炉、五徳から高台にガスコンロが設置されるようになったことは、それぞれの地域で竈神の祀り方が変化したことの大きな要因だと考えられる。版画に描かれた土製支脚と竈神は、現在はフエ地域でみることができ、多くの家庭では神体を小型の神像に変えながら土製支脚であった竈神が継承されている。しかし、フエ地域以外でも長い時間をかけて使用されてきた土製支脚は、三柱の神として人々に信仰されている。

おわりに 

 本稿で述べてきたように、ベトナムの竈は地炉に置かれた土製支脚であった。三つの支脚で鍋・釜を支えるこの煮炊きの道具は、後期新石器時代後半から現在まで使われて続けており、20世紀初頭の版画には、土製支脚を調理に使用する人々の様子と土製支脚を竈神として祀る様子が描かれている。

しかしオジェ編纂の版画が描かれてから約100年の間に台所の形態は変わり、地炉から高台にガスコンロが置かれるようになると竈神の祀り方も変化していく。現在、土製支脚を神体とした竈神はフエ地域で継承されているが、しかし多くは小型の神像に変わり祭壇で祀られている。台所の形態や生活環境の変化に応じて竈神の祀り方はこれからも変化し続けていくのだろう。その時、土製支脚をもとにした三柱の竈神はどうなるのだろうか、人々の暮らしとともにある竈神のこれからにも関心を向けていきたい。

今回は版画に描かれた煮炊き道具について詳細に見ていくことができなかった。今後の課題として、ベトナムにおける煮炊き道具や燃料、用途などについて版画に描かれたものと実際のものとを比較し、物質文化研究として深めていきたい。


References

1 . Oger, Henri 2009(1909) Techinique du peuple Annamite, Mechanics and crafts of the Annamites, Kỹ thuật của người An Nam ⅠⅡⅢ, Nhà xuất bản Thế giỏi., 

2 . Trần Đại Vinh 1995 Tín Ngưỡng Dân Gian Huế, Nhà xuất bản Thuận Hóa,Huế, 

3 . 大林太良・今村啓爾・宇野公一郎 1984「東南アジアの先史文化」大林編『東南アジアの民族と歴史』民族の世界史6 山川出版社 : 79-150, 

4 . 小林行雄 1941「土製支脚」『考古学雑誌』31(5):276−298, 

5 . 昭和女子大学国際文化研究所紀要1997『ベトナム・ホイアン考古学調査報告書』Vol.4, 

6 . 昭和女子大学国際文化研究所紀要2002『ベトナム・ホイアン地域の考古学的研究』Vol.8, 

7 . 菅野賢治 2004「失われた自己イメージの回復−アンリ・オジェ編纂によるベトナム版画集(1908−1909)の復刻−」『人文研紀要』第52号 中央大学人文科学研究所:245-273, 

8 . 鍋田尚子2016「版画に描かれたモティーフとオンタオ儀礼」『非文字資料年報』12号:177−197, 

9 . 鍋田尚子2017a「ベトナム北部地域のオンタオ儀礼 具象から抽象へ ー文献資料と調査資料の整理からー」『非文字資料研究』第14号:197-224, 

10 . 鍋田尚子 2017b「ベトナムの竈神 昔話の事例紹介」『比較民俗学会報』第38巻第1号 比較 民俗学会:12-20, 

11 . 西村昌也2011『ベトナムの考古・古代学』同成社, 

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Ambedkar’s View on the Buddha and Buddha’s Attitude toward Caste System

Ambedkar’s View on the Buddha and Buddha’s Attitude toward Caste System








1. Introduction

Buddhism arose in India but it virtually vanished in the place of its origin around the 12th century. At the beginning of the 20th century, Buddhism was all but dead in India. Certain tribal groups in Bengal continued to follow Buddhism, as did peoples in Ladakh and Sikkim where Tibetan culture was influential, but these groups were on the minorities of Indian society.

In modern times, Buddhism started to revive in India after the mass conversion led by B. R. Ambedkar who was an Dalit himself and the leader of the Dalit in India. His lifework was the emancipation of the Dalit from the distinction and oppression originated from caste system and conversion was his final solution was to abandon Hinduism which was perpetuated caste injustice and to convert to a new religion for the Dalit.

After a long quest for a new religion, he finally embraced Buddhism for the alternative religion for the Dalit. Based on his long research on Buddhism, he produced the new and unique interpretation of Buddhism which was rather different from the traditional Buddhism. And his interpretation of Buddhism became the basis of Neo-Buddhism in India and it is no exaggeration to say that he is a founder of new religion, named Neo-Buddhism.

In this point, his interpretation of Buddhism deserves grave research. To see his view on Buddhism, it is important to examine his view on the Buddha. Also, his conversion was prompted by caste system and its cruelty, his view on the Buddha's attitude toward caste system should be examined.

As mentioned earlier, Ambedkar had studied Buddhism for a long time and his book, The Buddha and His Dhamma, is the product of his long and deep research on Buddhism. Thus, the observation on his view on the Buddha and Buddha’s attitude toward caste system will be done based on this book.

2. His View on the Buddha

Ambedkar devotes the first part of the book to explain the life of the Buddha and posits the Buddha’s life as the frame for the teaching of the dhamma throughout the volume. As he already did earlier, in his article, The Buddha and the Future of His religion, he again compared the Buddha with other religious leaders and brought out the human aspects of the Buddha in The Buddha and His Dhamma. He says,

Christ claimed to be the Prophet of Christianity. He further claimed that he was the Son of God… Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam, claimed that he was a Prophet sent by God…

He[the Buddha] claimed that he was no more than natural son of Suddhodana and Mahamaya… The Buddha never claimed that he was a prophet or a messenger of God. He repudiated any such description...

All prophets have promised salvation. The Buddha is the one teacher who did not make such promise. He made a sharp distinction between a moksha data and a marga data, one who gives salvation and one who only shows the way. He was only a marga data. ..

He[the Buddha] claimed that he was one of the many human beings and his message to the people was the message of man to man. He never claimed infallibility for his message….He said that it was open to anyone to question it, test it and find what truth is contained.

In The Buddha and His Dhamma, Ambedkar reconstructed the life of the Buddha from the Suttapiaka, the Buddhacarita and the works of Paul Carus, Lakshmi Narasu and Edward Thomas. Here, he maintains the strong rational position on the Buddha. This position caused even some modification of the Buddha’s life. The most striking example is that of his renunciation. It is generally known that the Buddha saw a dead person, a sick person, and an old person while he was living as a prince and was deeply disturbed with the experiences. And then he met a dignified hermit and decided to take renunciation and become an ascetic. For Ambedkar this reason for renouncing the world is absurd. And he proposed his own explanation for the Buddha’s Parivraja.

According to The Buddha and His Dhamma, the Sakyas, the clan of the Buddha, had their Sangh that every Sakya youth above twenty had to become the member and the Buddha was also initiated into the Sangh when he became twenty. After eight year from his enrollment, there was a dispute between the Sakyas and the neighbor clan, the Koliyas due to the use of water of the Rohini. The Sangh resolved to declare a war on the Koliyas. The Buddha strong apposed the resolution and this led to serious discord with the Sangh. Thus he decided to become a Parivrajaka as an exile.

It was Dharmanand Kosambi who first insisted this opinion and Ambedkar seems to borrow the idea from Kosambi. And his play ‘Bodhisattwa’ in Marathi has many scenes similar to this whole story of his discord with the Sangh, the dispute on the Rohini River, and his decision to take the denouncement as an exile.

And some thought this drew on in the Kuṇala Jataka. This Jataka mentioned the dispute on water but it happened after the Buddha renounced and attained the nirvana. Thus the description about the renunciation of the Buddha in The Buddha and His Dhammais is not based on any traditional Buddhist literatures.

As Ambedkar says, the story of Four Encounters could be absurd and unreasonable. When he took the renunciation he was 29 years old. It is irrational to suppose that a man of 29 would not have been exposed earlier to the presence of sickness and death though he remained in the palaces only. He could feel the misery of death, aging and sickness through his family as his own mother passed away just after his birth. Thus Ambedkar felt that the explanation was not plausible and did not appeal to reason.

It is not important, however, the story of Four Encounters is a historical fact. It means that the Buddha, then Prince Siddharth, felt the vanity of life through the birth, aging, illness, and death and sought the solution of this fundamental problem. And the fourth meet with a hermit signifies the means to overcome the inexorable nature of life and to attain the fundamental happiness. Thus, the story of Four Encounters can be elucidated the reflex of his thought on the birth, old age, sickness and death not some events which actually happened in his life. The four sights are metaphors for human transience and suffering.

In Sukhamala Sutta, the Buddha mentions that despite of his refined life such as having three palaces before his renunciation, he was obsessed with the thought about aging, illness and death. He says human beings are subject to aging, illness and death and it is wrong to be horrified, humiliated and disgusted on seeing another person who is aged, ill, and dead. And as he noticed this, his intoxication with youth, health, and life entirely dropped away. It shows that the Buddha had thought deeply about the unavoidable problem of life since he was young and healthy.

Later, the Buddha said he took the renunciation to seek the noble end of the yoke extinction without birth, decaying, illness, and death. The Buddha also explained to his disciples that the aim for Bhikshus life is to overcome birth, decay, death, grief, lament, unpleasantness, displeasure and distress and to achieve the complete ending of unpleasantness. He also told to his last disciple, Subhadda, that he renounced the world to seek the Good.

Thus the story of Four Encounters must be embellished by the editor of Buddhist literatures to describe the great renunciation of the Buddha more dramatically. They intended to emphasize the aim of the Buddha’s renunciation, i.e., the extrication from the circle of birth, aging, decay, and death.

However, Ambedkar who refused to accept the story of Four Encounters tried to find the reason of the renunciation of the Buddha from the social and political background. It reflects his view on religion which is social. For Ambedkar, the Buddha was not a person who was unconcerned with politics and social problems. He was the person who never tolerated social wrongfulness and injustice. Thus, Ambedkar may have correlated the Buddha’s renunciation with the political issue. According to him, the Buddha’s renunciation is motivated more by political exigencies rather than a desire to find the ultimate truth.

In The Buddha and His Dhamma, after Prince Siddharth left his home, he heard that the dispute on the Rohini was settled and a war did not happened. Since the dispute which caused him took the renunciation was over, he thought whether he came back to home or continued his Parivraja. He thought that ‘the problem of war is essentially a problem of conflict. It is only a part of a larger problem.’ And conflicts are constantly and perpetually going on between all relationships and it is the conflict which is the root of all sorrow and suffering. Thus he decided to find a solution for this problem of social conflict.

According to Ambedkar, the Buddha not only left his home for political reason but continued his parivraja to solve the social problems. Thus, the pursuit of solution for social conflict was his aim for his parivraja. Ambedkar wants the Buddha to be a social reformer who fought for the reconstruction of the unjust world as Ambedkar himself had done in his whole life. Thus In The Buddha and His Dhamma, the reason that the Buddha decided to preach his teachings is also to carry out the social reforms. It says,

Knowing that there was so much unhappiness in the world the Buddha realized that it was wrong for him to sit as a sanyasi with folded arms and allow thins to remain as they were. Asceticism he found to be useless. It was vain to attempt to escape from the world. There is no escape from the world even for an ascetic. He realized that what is necessary is not escape from the world. What is necessary is to change the world and to make it better. He realized that he left the world because there was so much conflict resulting in misery and unhappiness and for which he knew no remedy. If he can banish misery and unhappiness from the world by the propagation of his doctrine, it was his duty to return to the world and serve it and not sit silent as the personification of inactive impassivity.

And the five parivrajakas who practiced austerities with the Buddha before his enlightenment also accepted the Buddha as a social reformer in The Buddha and His Dhamma.

They felt that in him they had found a social reformer, full of the most earnest moral purpose and trained in all the intellectual culture of his time, who had the originality and the courage to put forth… the doctrine of salvation to be found here, in this life…

It seems that Ambedkar tried to make the Buddha as a hero of the underprivileged that could be synonymous with untouchables in India. He says that “the purpose of Tathagata in coming into the world is to befriend those poor and helpless and unprotected, to nourish those in bodily affliction, whether they be Samansa or men of any other religion – to help the impoverished, the orphan and the aged, and to persuade others so to do”.

As mentioned above, however, the aim of Buddhists is to overcome birth, decay, death, grief, lament, unpleasantness, displeasure and distress and to achieve the complete ending of unpleasantness and this is applied to all human beings. The problem of birth, decay, illness and death is universal and not specific to certain stratum. In his attempt to make the Buddhism as the most adequate religion for the untouchables, Ambedkar made the Buddha as a leader o only for the untouchables not a universal leader.

In fact, there were several disciples of the Buddha who was the elites of a society. Buddhism appears to have been popular amongst royalty, business magnates and bureaucrats. The king of Magadha, Bimbisara was one of the greatest patrons of the Buddha and Anathapindika who donated Jeta Park to the Buddha having purchased it from Prince Jeta was extremely wealthy businessman in Sravasti.

Since the teachings of the Buddha had the universal validity, it attracted people from all sections at the time of the Buddha and it is so in all ages and places. If the Buddha came into the world to befriend those poor and helpless and unprotected, it can be the other form of discrimination against which Ambedkar had fought throughout his whole life.

The Buddha took the renunciation to seek the solution for the problem of birth, decay, illness and death. Thus his aim for the renunciation is personal rather than social. And his decision to preach the Dhamma was also to help mankind to attain Nirvana. The society can be changed by achieving the personal goal, attaining Nirvana, but the changing and reforming the society cannot be the Buddha’s primary reason for his decision to take the renunciation and continue the practice.

It seems that Ambedkar’s description of the Buddha is not based on serious philological or historical studies, but is instead a liberal reconstruction and a new interpretation. Ambedkar wants to construct the figure of an ideal social reformer, of a new Buddha.

3. The Buddha's Attitude toward Caste System

To explain the Buddha's attitude toward Caste system, Ambedkar cited Assalayana Sutta and Esukari Sutta of Majjhima Nikaya and Aggika-Bharadwaj sutta of Sutta Nipata. He cited the conversation between the Buddha and a Brahmin named Esukari from Esukari Sutta of Majjhima Nikaya.

As against pride of ancestry, the station into which a man happens to be born determines only his designation be it noble or Brahmin or middle-class or peasant. Even as a fire is called after the material out of which it is kindled, and may thus be called either a wood-fire, or a chip-fire, or a bracken-fire, or a cowdung fire, just in the same way the noble, tran-scendant doctrine, I aver, is the source of true wealth for every man, birth merely determining his designation in one of the four classes.

"Lineage does not enter into a man's being either good or bad: nor do good looks or wealth. For, you will find a man of noble birth who is a murderer, a thief, a fornicator, a liar, a slanderer, a man of bitter tongue, a tattler, a covetous person, a man of rancour or of wrong views, and therefore I assert that noble birth does not make a good man. Or again you will find a man of noble birth who is innocent of all these vices; and, therefore, I assert that it is not lineage which makes a man bad."

What is important is high ideals and not noble birth. "No caste; no inequality; no superiority; no inferiority; all are equal. This is what he stood for. Identify yourself with others. As they, so I. As I, so they."

And he cited the story of the Brahmin Aggika who called the Buddha as outcaste. The Buddha explained to him that an outcaste was a person whose nature was immoral and behavior was evil. And the Buddha concluded that "No one is an outcaste by birth - and no one is a Brahmin by birth".

Besides the three suttas which Ambedkar cited in his book, there are several teachings on caste system in suttas. In Aggañña Sutta, the Buddha said,

…anyone from the four castes who becomes a monk, an Arahant who has destroyed the corruptions, who has lived the life, done what had to be done, laid down the burden, reached the highest goal, destroyed the fetter of becoming, and become emancipated through super-knowledge - he is proclaimed supreme by virtue of Dhamma and not of non-Dhamma.

…all of you, though of different birth, name, clan and family, who have gone forth from the household life into homelessness, if you are asked who you are, should reply: "We are ascetics, followers of the Sakyan."

And there is the well-known verse about the caste in Sutta Nipata by the Buddha, saying "Not by birth does one become an outcaste, not by birth does one become a Brahman. By action one becomes an outcaste, by action one becomes a Brahman."

As mentioned above, the Buddha placed a higher value on morality and the equality of people instead of on which family or caste a person is born into. He pointed out that there existed malicious and cruel people as well as virtuous and kindhearted people in every caste. Any person who had committed a crime would be punished accordingly by his karma irrespective of caste he belonged to. He said a person may be considered to have come from a high or low caste according to his good and bad deeds. Therefore, according to the Buddha it is the good and bad actions of a person and not his birth that should determine his caste.

And after becoming of member of the Sangha, monks and nuns were treated impartially. If there was be different in grade, it went by time of joining of the Sangha. For example, Upali who was a barber in the Buddha's hometown before becoming monk was considered as a senior of noble youths of Sakyas who entered the Sangha after him. According to Vinaya texts, members of the four castes renounce their names and their lineage when they become Buddhist monks. His Sangha was open to all and there was no bar of caste, sex or status.

Thus Ambedkar describes the Buddha as "the strongest opponent of caste and the earliest and staunchest upholder of equality". And he adds that the Buddha confuted all argument supporting caste and inequality.

It is hard to say that, however, the Buddha specified anywhere the way the secular society should be organized. And he pointed out the wrongfulness and injustice of caste system which determines the status of a person by birth but never mentioned abolition of class distinctions in the society. Wijayaratna insists that the Buddha had no intention either of bringing about a social revolution nor of instigating the oppressed against their oppressors. And Bechert asserts that the Buddhist doctrine hardly states the necessity to transform the society or improve the social conditions.

Ambedkar points out that if inequality be approved as the rule of the competition in the struggle for existence the weakest will always fall behind. But the fittest cannot be the best. Thus he suggests that equality may help the best to survive although the best may not be the fittest and religion must sustain equality. In this reason, the Buddha argued that a religion which did not preach equality is not worth having.

As he said, the Buddha emphasized equality at the time when the discrimination of human being was natural. Though he did not strongly protested against caste in the secular society, his attitude of abrogation of caste in his Sangha was laudable enough in consideration of social aspect of his time.

4. Conclusion

Ambedkar was fascinated by the figure of the Buddha but he transformed him into a humanist and a kind of social reformer. For him, the Buddha was the strongest opponent of caste. His view on the Buddha in which he placed emphasis on the social aspects than spiritual aspects influenced his interpretation of Buddhism. Based on this viewpoint, he introduced a number of innovations in traditional Buddhism.

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Characteristics of Human Education in Yulgok Thought

Characteristics of Human Education in Yulgok Thought








1. 머리말

율곡은 자신이 살았던 16세기 후반 조선 사회의 현실을 개혁해야 할 경장기(更張期)로 보았다. 또한 현실적으로 조선사회의 개혁이 필요함을 인식하고 새로운 가치관과 윤리의식의 정립을 위한 다양한 영역의 개혁론을 제시하였다.

다양한 개혁안을 제시하면서도, 그는 교육개혁을 개혁의 근본으로 생각했다. 왜냐하면 인간 존엄의 의미를 구현하고 인간의 선(善)한 본성을 함양하여 바람직한 인간으로 양성하기 위해 교육개혁을 개혁의 근본으로 여겼기 때문이다. 그래서 말년에 주로 교육에 관심을 갖고 교육개혁을 전개하여 교육을 통한 국가발전을 시도하였다.

율곡의 교육 목적은 주자학을 기반으로 성인(聖人)을 목표로 하는 올바른 인격을 갖춘 인간으로 교육시키는 것이었다. 그는 어떤 특정한 사람을 대상으로 교육 활동을 하지 않았다. 유아 교육, 가정교육, 청소년 교육, 학교 교육, 사회 교육, 제왕 교육에 이르기 까지 다양한 분야에 교육에 관한 저술활동을 하였다. 그리고 직접 교육에 임하여 투철한 교육 원리와 철학을 마련해 주었다.

율곡의 많은 저술과 사회를 개혁하고자 하는 개선책 속에는 그의 교육사상이 반영되어 있으며 다양한 각계각층의 사람들을 대상으로 교육활동을 추구하였던 것에 그 특징이 있다.

교육의 목적은 그 시대와 사회적 요구를 반영하게 마련이다. 오늘날 흔히 교육의 목적을 기술할 때, 󰡐개인적으로 행복하고 사회적으로 유용한 인간󰡑이라는 표현을 쓴다. 이때 전자를 개인적 내재적 목적이라고 한다면, 후자는 사회적 외재적 목적이라고 볼 수 있다. 다시 말하면 개인적 차원에서는 수신(修身)과 입신양명(立身揚名)이며 국가적 차원에서는 유용한 인재의 양성이며 치인(治人)의 도(道)라고 할 수 있다.

교육이란 학문 활동을 의미하는데, 그 자의(字意)로는 배우고 묻는 것을 말한다. 인간은 본래 불완전한 존재이고 아는 것보다는 모르는 것이 많으므로, 앎에 대한 욕구는 인간의 자연스런 바램이다. 교육이 인간 능력을 계발하고 인간의 바람직한 변화를 추구하는 활동이라면 그 내용이 곧 학문이다. 그러면 율곡에 있어 학문이란 어떻게 이해되고 있는지 살펴보자.

율곡이 살았던 조선시대는 유교사회였다. 유교적 지배질서가 엄격하게 뿌리내린 가운데, 개인적으로 수기(修己)를 목적으로 하고, 사회적으로는 치인(治人)을 목적으로 하는 학문과 인격을 함께 갖춘 사람을 유학이 추구하는 이상적 인물로 설정하였다. 즉 유학에서의 학문을 하는 목적은 바람직한 인간인 성인(聖人)의 경지에 도달하기 위한 것이었다.

유학에서 추구하는 이상적 인간이란 성인(聖人)이며 율곡에게 있어 학문을 하는 목적, 즉 교육을 하는 목적도 유학에서 추구하는 인간상과 크게 벗어나지 않는다.

율곡은 인간은 타고난 본성에 있어서 그 차이가 없다고 거듭 강조하였다. 일반사람들이 성인(聖人)이 되지 못하는 것은 태어나면서 성인(聖人)과 일반사람으로 구분 되는 것이 아니라 기질(氣質)의 차이 때문이라는 것이다. 그러므로 일반사람들도 기질(氣質)을 변화시키는 노력을 하면 성인(聖人)이란 경지에 도달할 수 있다고 하였다. 그는 결국 학문을 하는 것도 유학에서 추구하는 성인(聖人)이 되기 위해 인격을 닦고 선현(先賢)의 가르침을 실현하기 위한 것으로 여겼다.

2. 율곡의 교육 목적

유학에서 학문을 하는 목적과 관련하여 율곡이 주장하는 교육 목적을 그의 저술들을 통해 살펴보면 다음과 같다.

① 올바른 삶을 실현하기 위해 학문(교육)을 해야 한다.

율곡은 학문을 어렵거나 특별한 것이라고 생각하지 않았다. 율곡이 생각하는 학문이란 인간이 살아가면서 지켜야할 마땅한 도리이며 일상생활 속에서 자연스럽게 이루어지는 일들을 직접 행동으로 실천해야 하는 것으로 이루어져 있다.

예를 들면 부모는 자식에게 자애롭고, 자식은 부모에게 효도하는 것과 같다.

사람이 이 세상에 나서 학문에 의존하지 않고서는 올바른 사람이 될 수 없다. 이른바 학문이란 것은 역시 이상하거나 별다른 것이 아니다. 다만 아비가 되어서는 자애롭고, 자식이 되어서는 효도하고, 신하가 되어서는 충성하고, 부부간에는 분별이 있고, 형제간에는 우애롭고, 젊은이는 어른을 공경하고, 친구간에는 신의를 두는 것으로서 일용의 모든 일에 있어 그 일에 따라 각기 마땅하게 할 뿐이요, 현묘한 것에 마음을 두거나 기이한 것을 노리는 것이 아니다.

이와 같이 율곡이 말하는 학문은 사람이 사람다운 사람으로 살아가고 올바른 삶 을 영위하기 위해서 필요한 것이다. 즉 학문을 하는 것은 일상생활 속에서 인륜(人倫)의 도리와 질서를 지키며 올바른 삶을 살아가기 위해서 이다. 그의 철학에서 올바른 삶이란 인간이 도달하기 힘든 높고 먼 것이 아니다. 그것은 인간이 살아가면서 지켜야할 가족간의 도리와 질서를 말한다. 또한 친구간의 의리, 관직에 나아가서 임금에게 충성하고 나라와 백성을 위해 질서와 규범에 어긋나지 않는 행동을 하는 것이다. 이처럼 율곡은 인륜(人倫)의 도리를 벗어나지 않고 일상생활 속에서 일어나는 모든 일들이 이치에 합당하도록 행위하고 사람답게 살아가는 것이 학문을 하는 목적이라 하였다.

② 성인(聖人)이 되는 것을 목표로 학문을 해야 한다.

율곡에 의하면 사람이 ‘사람다운 사람’이 되기 위해 학문을 해야 하며, 이러한 사람다운 사람이 사람답게 살아가기 위해서는 ‘올바른 인격을 갖춘 사람’이 되어야 한다는 것이다. ‘사람다운 사람’,’올바른 인격을 갖춘 사람’이란 일상생활 속에서 바람직한 삶을 살아가는 사람이다. 이 ‘사람다운 사람’의 기준을 율곡은 성인(聖人)이라 하였고 일생동안 성인(聖人)이 되기 위해 학문을 게을리 해서는 안 된다고 주장하였다.

처음으로 배우는 사람은 먼저 뜻을 확립하는 것을 필요로 한다. 반드시 성인이 되기를 자기의 목표로 삼고서 한 터럭만큼도 스스로 포기하거나 물러서고 미루려는 생각을 가져서는 안 된다. 대개 뭇사람도 성인과 그 본성은 동일하다. 비록 기질에 맑고 흐리고, 순수하고 박잡한 차이가 없지 않으나, 참으로 능히 참되게 알고 진실되게 행하여 그 낡은 버릇을 버리고 시초의 본성을 되찾게 되면, 털끝만큼을 보태지 않고서도 온갖 선이 다 만족하여질 것이다. 뭇사람이여, 어찌 성인을 스스로의 목표로 세우지 않을 수 있겠는가! 그러므로 맹자는 성이 선하다고 말하시며 늘 요순을 일컬어 그것을 실증하면서 󰡐사람은 다 요순이 될 수 있다󰡑고 하였다. 어찌 우리를 속이셨으랴.

이처럼 율곡은 맹자(孟子)가 주장한 성선(性善)의 인간관을 바탕으로 인간의 본래 성품은 선(善)하다고 하였다. 그러므로 누구나 노력하면 성인(聖人)이 될 수 있는 가능성을 가지므로 자신의 인격을 닦기 위해 노력해야 하는 것이다. 율곡이 목표로 하는 성인(聖人)이란 이상적인 목표로서만이 아닌 현실에서의 바람직한 삶을 실현하기 위해 끊임없이 자신을 수양하는 사람이다. 그는 이러한 성인(聖人)이 될 수 있는 가능성을 교육을 통해 이루어질 수 있다고 보았다.

율곡은 현대 사회처럼 물질적 가치를 쫓아 지식위주로 학문에 정진하는 것과는 달리 인간의 도덕적 측면과 인격의 완성을 교육의 목적에 두었다. 그러나 율곡이 살았던 당시 조선사회에서도 사회적 성공과 부를 축척하기 위해 학문에 정진하는 사람들이 많았다. 이러한 현상을 율곡은 다음과 같이 비판하고 있다.

예전 학자는 벼슬을 구하지 않았으나 학문이 성취되면 웃사람이 들어 등용하였다. 대개 벼슬이라는 것은 남을 위하는 것이요 자기를 위하는 것이 아니다. 지금은 예전같지 않고 과거로 사람을 뽑아 비록 하늘을 관통하는 학식과 남이 따르지 못할 행실이 있더라도, 과거가 아니고서는 도를 펼 직위에 나아갈 길이 없다. 때문에 아비가 자식을 가르치고 형이 아우에게 권하는 것이 과거 밖에 다시 다른 방법이 없게 되었다. 선비의 습속이 변한 것은 주로 이 때문이다. 다만 요즈음의 선비는 흔히 부모의 희망과 문호의 계책을 위해 과거 공부를 면치 못한다 하더라도 자신을 수양하고 때를 기다려서 잘되고 못되는 것은 천명에 맡길 것이요, 탐내고 조급하고 애태워 그 뜻을 잃어서는 안 된다.

여기에서 율곡은 벼슬이란 것은 남을 위하는 것이며, 자기 자신의 부귀영화와 출세의 수단으로 전략해서는 안 된다고 주장하고 있다. 그는 결국 학문을 하는 진정한 자세는 과거시험에 합격하기 위해서가 아니라 도(道)를 펼치기 위한 것임을 사람들에게 인식시켜주고 있다.

율곡은 29세에 관직에 있으면서 자신이 추구하였던 도학정치(道學政治)를 펼치고자 한다. 그래서 “수신제가 치국평천하(修身齊家 治國平天下)”라는 기본원리에 근거하여 임금이 올바른 정치를 하기 위해서는 자신을 수양해야 한다는 덕성(德性) 함양을 강조하였다. 그로 인하여 성인(聖人)의 경지에 오르면 군자(君子)의 통치에 의해 백성들 또한 성인(聖人)의 경지에 도달할 수 있다는 것이다.

과거에 합격하기 위해 학문을 하고, 높은 벼슬에 올라 자신의 욕심을 채우기 위한 학문은 이미 그 목적을 상실하였다. 그러므로 인간은 살아가면서 일상생활 속에서 지켜야 할 도리를 행동으로 실천하고 사람답게 살기 위해 성인(聖人)을 본받으려 노력해야 하는 것이다. 율곡은 이것이 바람직한 학문의 태도이며 교육을 하는 목적이라 하였다.

③ 기질(氣質)을 변화시키는 것이 중요하다.

율곡은 올바른 삶을 실현하기 위해 인간에게 교육이 필요함을 주장한다. 그는 현실에서 바람직한 삶을 추구하여 올바른 삶을 살아가는 사람을 성인(聖人)이라 지칭한다. 그래서 이러한 성인(聖人)을 목적으로 학문에 정진해야 하는데 성인(聖人)이 되기 위해서는 우선 기질(氣質)을 변화시키는 것을 가장 중요한 문제라고 인식했다. 율곡은 인간은 타고난 본성에 있어서 차이가 없으나 일반사람들이 성인(聖人)이 되지 못하는 것은 태어나면서 성인(聖人)과 일반사람으로 구분 되는 것이 아니라 결국 기질(氣質)의 차이 때문이라는 것이다.

학문을 성실히 하였다면 반드시 편벽된 기질을 고쳐서, 본연(本然)의 성(性)을 회복하여야 합니다. 그 때문에 장자(張子)는 말하기를 “학문을 하는데 큰 도움이 되는 것은 기질을 변화시키는 데 있다.”

이처럼 학문을 하는 것은 기질(氣質)을 변화시키는 것이 중요하다는 것을 알 수 있다. 성인(聖人)과 일반사람은 본성에 있어서 차이가 없지만, 기질(氣質)의 차이에 의해서 성인(聖人)과 일반사람으로 나뉘어 진다. 그러므로 일반사람들도 기질(氣質)을 변화시키기 위해 노력하면 성인(聖人)이란 경지에 도달할 수 있다. 그는 학문을 하는 것도 유학에서 추구하는 성인(聖人)이 되기 위해 인격을 닦고 선현(先賢)의 가르침을 실현하기 위한 것이라 보았다.

율곡은 유가에서 이상적인 인간상으로 추구하는 성인(聖人)의 가능성을 특정한 사람에게 국한시키지 않았다. 그러므로 누구나 착한 본성을 살려 기질(氣質)을 변화시키기 위해 노력하면 성인(聖人)이 될 수 있으므로 학문에 정진하여 끊임없이 노력하는 자세를 갖추어야 한다는 것이다.

④ 실천하는 자세가 중요하다.

성리학은 교육의 목적에 있어서 두 가지 유형으로 볼 수 있다. 하나는 성인(聖人), 군자(君子)를 목표로 하는 이상주의적 도덕파라 할 수 있고, 다른 하나는 문학을 배워서 과거에 응시하여 관리로 등용되는 것을 목표로 삼는 현실주의적 관료파라 하겠다. 이에 율곡은 이상적인 교육 목적은 성인(聖人)에 도달하는 것이고, 현실적 목적은 일상생활인 윤리에 합당하도록 학문으로 교육해야 한다는 것과 입신행도(立身行道)를 위해 과업을 준비하는 것을 지적하였다.

율곡은 성리학적 본질을 추구하여 인간심성을 되찾고자 하는 방향으로 교육목표를 설정하였고, 자신이 살았던 당시 조선 사회의 학풍을 개혁하고자 하였다. 이 때의 학풍은 사장학(詞章學) 중심으로 문학을 배워서 과거에 응시하여 관리로 등용되는 것이 학문을 하는 목적으로 굳어져 가고 있었다. 그래서 바람직한 교육을 위해 먼저 도덕적 수양의 중요성을 강조하였다. 즉 학문하는 사람이 인간의 본성을 중요시 하는 마음가짐과 올바른 인간의 도리를 다하는 자세를 갖추도록 노력해야 한다는 것이다.

또한 학문을 하는 데 있어서 일상적인 지식의 습득과 함께 실천이 함께 이루어져야 하는 것을 중요한 과제로 여겼다.

학문이란 오뚝이 단좌(端坐)하여 종일토록 글만 읽는 것이 아닙니다. 학문이란 오직 날마다 하는 일이 하나하나 이치에 맞아야 하는 것을 말합니다. 그러나 이치에 맞는지 안 맞는지를 능히 스스로 알지 못하기 때문에 독서하여 그 이치를 찾는 것입니다. 만일 독서를 학문으로 알고 날마다 하는 일에 있어서 이치에 합당함을 추구하지 아니한다며 어찌 학문이라 하겠습니까.

이와 같이 학문이란 어렵거나 우리가 살아가는 데 있어서 멀게 느껴지는 것이 아닌 일상생활 속에서 일어나는 모든 일들이 이치에 합당하도록 하는 데 있다. 그러므로 일상생활과 유리된 학문은 삶을 떠난 무의미한 것이다. 그는 단순히 독서(讀書)하고 선현(先賢)들의 지식만을 외우는 데 그치고, 자신의 일상생활에 실천하지 않는다면 학문하는 바른 자세가 아니라고 하였다.

율곡은 모든 인간이 일상적인 삶 속에서 인간으로서 마땅한 도리를 알고 지키며 인간다운 삶을 누릴 수 있는 이상적인 사회를 건설하기 위하여 끊임없이 현실에 대한 비판과 개혁을 추구하게 된다. 따라서 현실성이 없는 학문, 실천이 결여된 지식, 앎과 삶이 유리된 교육을 철저하게 배격한다.

율곡은 인간생활의 현실과 이상을 조화시키는데 교육의 참 목적이 있다는 것을 누구보다도 절실하게 깨우쳐 주고 있다. 이는 깨달은 바를 행동화하지 않는 당시의 허구적인 교육풍토를 강력하게 비판하고 있음을 엿볼 수 있다.

3. 율곡의 교육 방법

지금까지 율곡이 추구한 교육 목적을 살펴보았다. 그는 교육의 목적을 기질(氣質)을 변화시켜 바람직한 인격을 갖춘 성인(聖人)이 되기 위해 노력하는 것이라고 주장한다. 지금부터 살펴볼 교육방법 또한 교육의 목적과 관련하여 설명할 수 있다.

조선 사회의 교육 방법은 당시 유교적 질서에 의해 영향을 받았고, 이러한 유교의 인식론적 전통 또는 유교사회의 교육목적과 관련을 맺게 된다. 교육을 하면서 행해진 교육 방법도 유교 사회의 가르침에서 벗어나지 않는다. 그럼 당시 유교 사회의 교육방법은 어떠했는가? 이것을 유교사회의 가르침 속에서 교육을 받고 실천해온 율곡이 제시한 교육 방법을 통해 알아보자.

율곡은 교육 방법을 그의 여러 저술을 통해 효과적으로 제시하고 있다. 여기서는 율곡이 제시한 교육 방법을 입지(立志)의 확립, 평생교육의 중요성, 지행합일(知行合一)의 원리, 상벌을 통한 강화의 원리, 교사의 중요성 등 이 다섯 가지를 통하여 교육의 합리적인 방법을 고찰해 보고자 한다.

① 교육 방법과 관련하여 일관되게 입지(立志)의 중요성을 강조한다.

율곡은 인간이 학문에 임하여 가장 먼저 행해야 할 일은 뜻을 세우는 일이며, 그는 이것을 󰡐입지(立志)󰡑라고 표현한다. 입지(立志)란 뜻을 세우는 것으로 학문을 하는데 있어 목표를 정립하는 것이다. 교육의 목적을 이루기 위해 율곡은 가장 먼저 입지(立志)의 중요성을 강조하였는데 이를 율곡의 저술들을 통해 살펴보면 다음과 같다.

먼저 모름지기 입지(立志)를 크게 하여 성인으로써 준칙을 삼을 것이니, 일호라도 성인에 미치지 못하면 나의 일은 마치지 못한 것이 된다. 마음이 정해진 자는 말이 적으니, 마음을 정하는 것은 말을 적게 하는 데서부터 시작된다.

배움에는 뜻을 세우는 것보다 앞서는 것이 없는 것이니, 뜻이 서지 아니하고는 능히 공부를 이룬 이는 없습니다.

이와 같이 율곡은 배움에 있어 입지(立志)를 정립해야 하는 것을 밝히고 있다. 이것은 학문을 하는 데 성인(聖人)을 목표로 뜻을 세워 성인(聖人)이 되기 위해 노력하는 자세를 중요하게 여기는 것이다. 또한 그는 뜻을 세워 입지(立志)를 크게 정립한 것에 그치지 않고 자신이 계획한 모든 일들을 행동으로 옮기고 실천하는 자세의 중요성을 인식하였다. 즉 성인(聖人)이 되기 위해서는 이러한 옛 성인(聖人)들의 훌륭한 가르침을 단순히 배우는 것에서 그치지 말아야 한다. 율곡은 현실에서 바람직한 삶을 살아가기 위해 자신의 행동하는 자세부터 가다듬어 나가는 것이 중요함을 알려주고 있다.

② 평생 교육의 중요성을 강조하였다.

율곡은 학문을 하는 것은 도(道)를 펼치기 위한 것이며, 부와 명예, 권력의 수단으로 학문에 정진하는 것은 바람직하지 않은 자세라고 여겼다. 또한 배움은 자신의 목표에 도달했으면 멈출 수 있는 행위가 아니라고 하였다. 이것은 그가 배움의 자세가 한평생 계속되어야 함을 나타내고 있는 것이다.

그의 저술인「자경문(自警文)」에서 율곡은 배움이라는 것이 죽을 때까지 계속되어야 한다고 다음과 같이 설명하고 있다.

공부하여 노력하는 데는, 늦춰서도 안 되고 조급히 하여서도 안 되며, 죽은 뒤에 그만 둘 따름이다. 만약 공효를 급속하게 구하면 이것도 또한 이욕의 마음이다. 만약 이와 같이 하지 않고 부모의 유체를 욕되게 하면 곧 사람의 자식이 아니다.

그리고 『격몽요결(擊蒙要訣)』제3장 지신(持身)장에서 학문하는 자세를 거경(居敬), 궁리(窮理), 역행(力行)의 자세로 일생 동안 행해야 할 일이라고 주장한다. 이 부분을 살펴보면 다음과 같다.

거경(居敬)으로 그 근본을 세우고 궁리(窮理)로 선을 밝히고 역행(力行)으로 그 진실을 실천한다는 세 가지는 종신의 사업인 것이다.

생각에 사(邪)가 없을 것, 공경하지 않음이 없을 것, 이 두 글귀는 일생 동안 받아들여 사용해도 끝이 없을 것이니. 마땅히 벽 위에 걸어두고 잠시도 잊어서는 아니 된다.

매일매일 마음이 간직되지 않았는가, 학문이 진전되지 않았는가, 행실을 힘쓰지 않았는가를 스스로 점검하여 있었다면 고치고 없었다면 더욱 힘써 부지런히 하고 게을리 함이 없어서 죽은 뒤에 그만두어야 한다.

율곡은 이와 같이 일상생활 속에서 기본적인 인간의 도리를 익히고 생활 속에서 그 도(道)를 실천하는 것으로 연결되어야 함이 학문하는 바른 자세라고 밝히고 있다.

이처럼 학문 또는 교육은 일정한 교육 기간 동안만 국한되는 것이 아니라 죽을 때까지 멈추어서는 안 된다 하여, 오늘날 평생교육의 이념에 가까운 이론을 전개하고 있다. 이것은 율곡에게 있어 학문이란 곧 사람됨인데, 그 사람됨은 죽을 때까지 그만둘 수 없기 때문이다.

③ 지행합일(知行合一)의 원리를 강조하였다.

이것은 율곡 교육사상의 핵심이며 그가 항상 강조하는 것으로 앞서 교육 목적에서도 언급하였다. 율곡은 일상생활 속에서 배운 것을 단순히 지식을 함양하는 것에 머물지 않고 삶 속에서 일어나는 모든 일을 배운 후에 직접 실행해야 한다는 것이다. 이것은 그가 실천하는 자세를 매우 중요하게 여겼음을 다음을 통해 알 수 있다.

지(知)와 행(行)은 비록 선후로 나누었으나 실은 동시에 함께 진행되는 것입니다. 그런 까닭에 어떤 이는 지(知)를 거쳐서 행(行)에 도달하고 어떤 이는 행(行)을 거쳐서 지(知)에 도달합니다.

여기에서 보면 지(知)와 행(行), 앎과 삶, 등이 각각 독립되어 있는 것처럼 느껴진다. 그러나 율곡은 이 모든 것들이 실제로는 독립하여 존재할 수 없고, 이치를 탐구하는 것과 실천하는 것은 두 가지 공부일지라도 함께 병진해야 한다는 것이다. 이처럼 교육을 통해 배운 것과 일상생활에서의 행동이 일치하지 않는 것은 진정한 성인(聖人)의 태도가 아니라고 거듭 밝히고 있다.

④ 교육의 바람직한 성과를 얻기 위해 상벌을 통한 강화의 원리를 강조하였다.

율곡은「은병정사약속(隱屛精舍約束)」과『학교모범(學校模範)』에서 상벌에 관한 규정을 구체적이고 자세하게 제시하면서 교육의 효율적인 성과를 제고해 보고 있다. 이들 내용을 간략하게 정리하면 다음과 같다.

율곡은 부모에게 효도하고, 형제간의 우애를 지키며, 제사에 근엄한 자세로 임하고 방탕한 생활을 하지 않고 부부간의 존중하여 가정의 법도가 문란하지 않게 해야 한다는 것을 가장 근본으로 제시하였다. 또한 스승을 존경하고 혼인 · 장래 · 환난 등 각종 행사에 참여하여 서로 돕고 지내면서 이웃과 불화를 일으키지 않고 화합해야 한다는 것을 강조한다.

덕업(德業)을 서로 권장하고, 잘못을 서로 바로잡고, 혼인·장례 때 서로 돕고, 환란에 서로 도와 언제나 남을 구해주고, 이롭게 하려는 마음을 품어야 하며, 남을 헤치거나 사물을 해롭히는 생각은 조금도 마음에 머물러 주어서는 안 된다.

백 가지 행실 가운데 효제(孝悌)가 으뜸이다. 어버이를 섬길 때는 정성과 공경을 다해야 하고, 형제간에는 우애와 공손을 극진히 해야 하며, 붕우(朋友)간에는 선으로써 권면해야 한다.

이처럼 인륜(人倫)에 토대를 둔 윤리규범을 중요시 하고 있음을 엿 볼 수 있다. 앞에서 계속 언급했듯이 율곡은 󰡐사람이 사람다운 사람󰡑이 되기 위해 학문을 하는 것에 교육 목적을 두었다. 그러므로 상벌의 적용에 있어서도 일상생활에서 인간의 도리를 제대로 행하는 사람과 행하지 못하는 사람에 관해 상벌을 적용하였다.

가정에서의 가족에 대한 기본적인 도리에서부터, 학교에서 스승을 섬기는 도리와 벗들과의 친숙함, 사회 구성원으로서 지켜야할 도리 등을 잘 지켜서 칭찬할 만한 사람은 선적에 기입하여 사람들에게 권장하도록 하였다. 그러나 지키지 못하면 벌을 가했는데 율곡은 먼저 엄하게 탓하기 보다는 타이르고 스스로 고치도록 해주고, 나중에도 반성하지 않으면 벌을 주었다.

그는 우리가 일상생활에서 그냥 지나치기 쉬운 일들을 교육적 차원에서 상벌을 규정 하여 지도해야 하는 것이 옳다고 여겼기 때문이다. 또한 이것은 인간이 지켜야할 예절과 규범들을 성실하게 실행하기 위해서는 생활 속에서 작은 행동부터 바로잡아가야 한다는 것을 보여주는 인성 교육의 중요성을 강조하는 것 같다.

⑤ 교사의 중요성을 강조하였다.

율곡은 바람직한 교육정책을 실행하기 위해 교사의 역할과 대우가 중요함을 언급 하였다. 이것은 당시 사회가 교사 제도에 대한 열약한 현실과 교사에 대한 잘못된 인식 때문에 훌륭한 교사의 선발이 어려웠기 때문이다. 그는 교화의 방법으로 훌륭한 교사를 선발하는 것이 가장 중요하다는 것을 알려 주고 있다. 「동호문답(東湖問答)」과 「학교모범(學校模範)」을 통해 교사의 중요성을 다음과 같이 주장하고 있다.

백성을 잘 기른 다음에는 교화를 베풀어야 하는데 교화를 베푸는 방법은 학교보다 먼저 할 것이 없습니다.

교화하는 법은 스승을 가리는 것보다 앞설 것이 없다.

여기서 율곡은 훌륭한 교사를 선발하는 것이 학교 교육의 가장 기본이 된다는 것을 강조하고 있다. 그러나 율곡의 눈에 비친 그 시대 교사의 사회적 지위는 무척 열악하고 낮았다. 이렇게 교사의 지위가 낮아지게 된 것은 잘못된 교육풍토와 과거제도 때문이라고 그는 이해하였다.

근래에는 훈도의 임명에 그 자격을 가리지 않고 한갓 청탁에만 따르므로 스승의 자리가 도리어 가난한 선비의 입에 풀칠하는 밑천이 되고 말았다. 그래서 훈도의 이름이 천히 여기는 바가 되어 서로 비웃고 나무라기까지 한다. 스승이 이미 자격자가 아니고 보면 선비의 풍기가 날로 쇠퇴하여질 것은 이 세상 필연적이므로 괴이쩍어할 것이 없다.

이처럼 그는 당시 조선의 잘못된 교육 풍토를 비판하고 있으며, 과거 제도로 인해 선비들의 학문하는 태도가 참다운 인성함양에서 멀어져 가고 있음을 안타깝게 생각했다. 이로 인해 모두들 과거시험에 합격하여 높은 벼슬에 오르려 하고 학문을 가르치는 교사란 직책을 미천하게 여기는 현상이 나타났다.

이와 같이 조선 중기의 교사에 대한 사회적 인식과 열약한 대우를 통해서 당시에도 훌륭한 교사의 선발이 무척 어려운 일이였음을 알 수 있다. 율곡은 이러한 교육 현실을 바라보면서 교사에 대한 자질과 우대책을 개선하기 위한 방안을 강구하였다.

무릇 학문과 덕행에 있어서 남의 추중을 받아 사표가 될 만한 자를, 매년 서울은 한성부와 오부에서, 지방은 관찰사와 수령들이 각각 성심껏 돋보아서 그 실상을 얻어 명단을 적어 올리면 임금의 결재를 얻어 명단을 이조에 내리고, 성균관 당상관 역시 관학의 유생들을 모아 공천케 하여 합당한 자는 명단을 뽑아 이조에 보고하면 이조에서는 다시 더 자세히 살펴서 자리가 비는 대로 차출하되 거주지 근처의 고을에 으레 자리를 준다.

여기서 율곡은 교사가 갖추어야 할 자질과 새로운 교사 선발책을 제시하였다. 그는 기본적인 교사의 자질로서 우선은 학문과 함께 덕행(德行)을 들고 있다. 또한 단순히 지식의 많고 적음을 판단하는 시험으로 교사를 선발하지 않고 평소의 생활태도를 함께 보면서 교사로서 적합한지 평가하여 선발해야 한다는 것을 강조하였다.

현대사회에도 학생들의 교사에 대한 존경심이 점차 사라져 가면서 교사의 권위가 실추되고 있다. 또한 학생들을 올바르게 지도해야 할 교사가 사욕에 치우쳐 교사로서 부당한 행위를 하는 경우를 접하기도 한다. 그러므로 교사를 선발할 때 그 사람의 학문적 지식만을 중요하게 보아서는 안 된다. 무엇보다 교사는 학생과 학교를 사랑하는 열정과 인격을 갖추는 것이 참다운 교사가 갖추어야 할 가장 중요한 자질인 것이다.

4. 나가는 말

율곡 교육의 일반적 특징에 대해 정리하였다. 율곡이 연령과 계층에 관련 없이 교육을 해야 하는 목적과 이러한 교육의 실현을 위한 교육 방법에 관해 구체적으로 제시하였다. 율곡에게 있어 교육은 바람직한 인간인 성인(聖人)이 되기 위해 끊임없이 노력하는 것이었다. 그는 학문에 임하는 사람들이 보다 쉽게 교육에 접할 수 있도록 다양한 교육 방법을 설정하여 효율적인 학습방법을 제시하였다.

현대사회가 전통시대와는 달리 서구의 문물을 수용하면서 경제적인 풍요로움 속에서 예전보다 편리한 생활을 누리고 있으며 가치관에도 많은 변화가 일어나고 있다. 또한 교육제도도 사회와 국가의 흐름에 따라 그 시대와 사회에 적합한 인간을 기르기 위해 교육목표나 교육방법이 전통시대와 다르게 변화되었다. 그러한 과정에서 경제적 이익에 치우쳐 도덕성을 상실하게 되었고, 이제는 인성을 회복시키는 교육이 필요하다는 것을 실감할 수 있게 되었다. 이러한 인성을 회복하기 위해 가정에서부터 가족구성원들이 각자의 역할에 맞게 규범과 질서를 지키며 화목한 가정을 이루기 위한 가정교육이 제대로 이루어져야 한다.


References

1 . 손인수, 『율곡 사상의 이해: 교육사상을 중심으로』, 서울: 교육과학사, 1995, 

2 . 송석구, 『율곡의 철학사상 연구』, 서울: 형설출판사, 1996, 

3 . 이동인, 『율곡의 사회개혁사상』, 백산서당 2002, 

4 . 이종호, 『율곡: 인간과 사상』, 지식산업사, 1998, 

5 . 장숙필, 『이이, 율곡전서』, 울산대학교 출판부, 1999, 

6 . 조남국, 『율곡의 삶과 철학 그리고 경제 · 윤리』, 서울: 교육과학사, 1997, 

7 . 황의동, 『율곡 사상의 체계적 이해1』, 황의동, 서울: 서광사, 1998, 

8 . 황의동, 『율곡 사상의 체계적 이해2』, 황의동, 서울: 서광사, 1999, 

9 . 황준연, 『율곡 철학의 이해』, 서울: 서광사, 1995, 

10 . 김경호, 「율곡의 교육사상」, 『율곡사상연구』5권, 2002, 

11 . 김도건, 「율곡의 교육개혁론에 관한 연구」, 율곡학회, 1999, 

12 . 박의수, 「율곡 이이의 교육사상」, 한국사상문학학회, 2000, 

13 . 박익환, 「율곡의 이이의 교육사상」, 서울대 석사학위 논문, 1979, 

14 . 손인수, 「율곡의 윤리 교육사상: 율곡의 교육사상 연구」, 율곡학회, 1994, 

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Study on the learner-focused education -‘Korean Writing and Speaking Practice’ case-

Study on the learner-focused education -‘Korean Writing and Speaking Practice’ case-








1. Introduction

The language used by human beings is different from that of animals in the aspect of quality; human's language is being enriched by extremely abstract words not to mention of simple ones for daily communication. Considering that all these words contain certain information, the use of language is a matter of survival to contemporaries living in the information valued world. In this regard to be qualified as an efficient processor of information is one of strategies for survival. In addition contemporaries need more than their mother tongue: foreign languages. And there occurs several problems in communication among foreign languages. To increase the number of ones' own mother tongue users and to extend the area and region of its usage might be a great survival strategy in the respect of language availability.

The term, learner-focused education is used to be differentiated from the teacher-focused unilateral education and the teaching material-focused cramming education. Learner-focused education is based on the principle that the interest, motivation, tastes and ability of learners is the top priority in the field. The language using ability is most effectively improved when performed repeatedly in meaningful situations. In the respect of motivating, it needs to be noticed that the effectiveness of learning is lower in the hypothetical situation than in the real world. This is an unavoidable innate limitation of teacher-focused, teaching material-focused educations.

But it is still believed that unilateral delivery of knowledge and to master a schoolbook completely might be one of useful ways to improve language using ability. On the other hand, some people argues that it can be more effective to reorganize a schoolbook in a more effective way, to use teaching-aid materials, and to emphasize interactions among students. The position that learner-focused education takes is the latter. The ideal of the learner-focused education is for teachers to help and encourage learners to choose the way that fits most. Using teaching materials in a various way is also recommended.

The language using ability is improved through practices in real situation. While practicing, learners accomplish much of language ability by correcting errors by themselves. Therefore the best way to improve the language ability is to expose learners as long as possible to real situations to practice the language which mean something to them. It's needless to say that this is based on trust in learners. The whole language education, which pursues natural acquisition of written and spoken language in some practical and meaningful situation shares the same idea with the learner-focused education.

To inspire students' creativity and give them opportunities to choose one's own career according to their aptitude and talent means that teachers no longer regard students as passive objects; make them grow to be self-leading learners. This is the same as to breed a harmonious personality with creativity and thinking power. It also means that the education circumstances must let learners to organize their own concept and knowledge spontaneously and autonomously on the basis of their knowledge that they already have abandoning the simple delivery of knowledge from teachers.

Self-leading learning power is the ability that students solve problems by themselves. The ability has nothing to do with memorizing the given knowledge but has something to do with nurturing problem solving power through experiences. It is a big difference whether you see learning as the influx of knowledge from outside or as the reorganization of knowledge from inside.

From the structuralism point of view, knowledge is subjectively constituted only by the subject of recognition. Because human beings interpret things based on the personal experiences or relations to them, knowledge is viewed as the outcome of mental activities of each individual. There have been many trials to apply compositionalism to the teaching-learning process at school. From the perspective of compositionalism, a teacher is a listener, guide, helper, facilitator, encourager, and supporter.

Teacher-leading education allot the same assignment to every student, set the same goal to be achieved, focus on the memorization, make students abide by rules, recognize teaching as control, allow only teachers to correct wrong behavior of students and so on. However self-leading education allot all assignment according to a student's need, set individual goals, try to achieve goals over a long time of study, teach students to take responsibility for their behavior, recognize teaching as giving freedom, allow students themselves both to monitor their behavior and to correct them and so forth.

2. Feature of the learner-focused education

Though the term learner-focused education is similar to ①consumer-focused ②receiver-focused ③student-focused educations which were already used they are distinguished in this paper. The one-way relation between a teacher and a student in which a teacher delivers knowledge and students only get it is much changed in that those terms induce students to ask questions and to present. However that the teacher-focused education is the ultimate destination people are headed for is not much changed in that still the relationship between a teacher and a student is based on the relationship between a provider and a consumer. Here we have a textbook, designated curriculum, fixed goals and assessment questions accordingly.

But those things do not reflect the taste and aptitude of individual students though it's natural that each student should have different taste and aptitude. Despite the fact that it can't be said which one is superior or which one is inferior about the matter of taste and aptitude, the teacher-focused education does include uniform education and assessment which are already fixed. Suppose the vaccination. Everybody is inoculated with the same amount of the vaccine regardless of the physical constitution of each person. Some might be allergic to that vaccination or some are not. Though each person has a different physical constitution, people expect the same effects of the vaccination.

On the contrary, in the learner-focused education, a learner can choose subjects, teachers, textbooks, and ways of assessment that he wants as the subject of education. This flexibility of the learner-focused education can be applied to a single unit lecture and we can expect the practical effects of it. For instance, "To memorize the 10 suggestions in wring self-introduction", "To write down 5 suggestions in giving a speech", "To write down 5 points in persuasive writing" and so on are not the things to be done in the classroom of the learner-focused education. Rather in that classroom a student can choose very practical subjects such as "To introduce oneself to give a good impression on the parents of the arranged meeting partner", "Writing a self-introduction to apply for the car salesman" and so on. And of course in this case a student can choose the subject that he want among various subjects.

In the learner-focused education, a student excercise his rights as a consumer. This new school paradigm can be named a market type school. In the market, customers are the king. And service industry will get a higher position than anything else in the future. The ideology of the learner-focused education requires the education administration and the attitude of teachers to be transformed in the era of education as a service. The authority given to the teacher and the curriculum is being challenged. So we need diversified educational products to satisfy the various taste of the consumer or the learner. The small quantity batch production in the market economy is also anticipated in the area of education.

In this paradigm the teacher plays a role as a midwife as Socrates told. Teachers help students to produce their own knowledge. The function of school and teacher has to be confined to be an advisor and provider of the surroundings to let students pursue the truth by themselves and taste the joy of academic accomplishment. The learner-focused education is on the assumption that to promote the atmosphere for students to raise questions voluntarily and to be born again as an active quester of the knowledge is the first thing. This is one of our trials to break from the conventional cramming education and the typified image of students as a passive receiver of knowledge.

The research on 「Amelioration of teaching and learning method to improve self-learning ability」 conducted at the middle school annexed to the college of education of Kyungsang Univ. showed that the problem solving ability and self-learning ability was proven through amelioration drill of the self-learning ability and self-assessment. And in the research on 「Amelioration of teaching and learning method to improve the participation of the student」, it was found to be effective that thinking highly of the role of the student, group activities, and the application of prepared lesson promoted the participation of the student only when assigning of homework, presentation, discussion and teachers are properly used according to each subject.

The research conducted at Dongbu girls' high school, Daegu showed that the practical application of teaching and learning data increased the chances for students to present themselves and improved the self-leading learning ability. The research at the annexed high school to the college of education of Jeonnam Univ. reported that the cooperative learning in a small group formed cooperative attitude and the intrinsic motivation, which Piaget and Brener contended, and finally was helpful to improve the self-learning ability. The research at the middle school and high school annexed to the college of education of Gongju Univ. revealed that the self-learning ability was increased by developing and applying a workbook according to the student's level. The research at the high school annexed to the college of education of Kyungsang Univ. showed that the creative learning ability was promoted by applying the self-leading teaching and learning strategy in various ways. All these researches prove the learner-leading education to be the comparatively superior education.

3. Teaching cases of ‘Korean Writing and Speaking Practice’

3.1. Lesson structures and assignment types

The objective of idea expression lesson is in improving speaking, listening, reading, and writing ability. Similarly narration, composition(practical), sentence theories and facts are also part of the lesson. The content of the classroom lesson mainly focuses on speaking and writing, since the course objective is to improve learner's individual idea expression in Korean. Naturally, speaking, listening, writing and reading can not be seperated. Not only that, but above four generally constitute each other in a lesson. The connection between the four are highly strong that "Training speaking-listening, writing-reading ability" can be the first goal of the lesson.

The discussions on this paragraph are university course lecture which are intact and some parts edited. The goals of the lecture are "My idea can be expressed as precise and refired. My opinions can be conveyed in orderly fashion. My expression can earn the agreement and response of the other party". Also "Confident and honest expression, comfortable and familiar appearance, modest and refined manner, keeping everyday etiquette, repetition of reading, and writing taking pleasure in interchange of information" are used practical assignment for the expression exercise.

The fundamental principle of the course is generally divided in to three forms which are "Participation as the subject. Creating practice, and sharing of emotion." To elaborate on the three forms, first, the learner must participate in the course with positive attitude as the subject not as passive consumer. Secondly, learners must not chase samples, patterns, or even the answers, but always repeatedly practice creating new ideas. Finally, sensations or emotions felt through realization from the lesson should be shared with and spread to others. In other words, (I become the master and personally enjoy, then share the expression with others), and this is the theme of the principle.

The lessons are divided for group and individual activities, however, presentations and lesson preparations are carried out in groups. Because 40-60 students attend a lecture, the divided groups consists of 8-12 students and these groups are lead to participate in preparation meeting before each lecture. In every lecture, each individual students must participate in the idea expression exercise, unfortunately due to the great number of students, it is impossible for each students to be provided with opportunity.

Thus the group study structure is adopted as alternative plan to the problem. As well as the provision of presentation time for group lesson results, the group members are encouraged to suggest or advice each other during individual assignments, so that basis for the following are practiced; group activity presentation, communication, discussion, debate and opinion sharing.

In accordance, in case of group activity, before each in-class presentation, following steps are taken, "① present individual opinion. ② share each other's opinion. ③ gather the opinions and decide." Even when individual assignments are presented, the groups gather before the class and follow similar steps. "① Do the assignments individually. ② Read the assignment as group and share opinions. ③ Polish final draft with reference to comments." Through group activity, the students can inherently practice presenting ideas, opinions, participating in discussion and revising, controlling then gathering ideas.

Setting a goal in the lesson as mentioned above, and maintaining the lesson structure allows the learners to actively participate. The stress is put on the progress rather than on the results. This effort eventually helps the growth of individuality and the ability in individual's interest fields. This reflects the idea that attaches importance to diversity, mutual respect, and forming harmony with others. Following are examples of individual and group lessons in order.

3.1.1. Finding my colour

It is suitable to write personal introductions, recommendations, and resumes at the beginning of semester. To provide opportunity to readjust the future plan and future hopes, assignments like "writing autobiography in advance" or a "biography written by Ahn-dong Ilbo journalist 100 years from now" are good writing activities. Indeed, variety of dreams are poured out. Following are several topics from personal introductions. "Me, holding a crayon, Do you know the holy water?, My past and present, A woman without a topic, Various sides of Jee-hyun, There are three types of people, Please hear my story, Let's appreciate the significance of one second and use it wisely, Dreaming of happy home, and Becoming beautiful me." Below are evaluations, opinions and statements to the personal introduction presentations.

3.1.2. Story pouch

This is time when groups freely choose a topic, then using materials such as things read before, creative writing, newspapers, magazines and internet, present their works. Last semester's presentation included " The most beautiful story in the world, sorrowful yet beautiful story, a story so funny that you would kill to read it, calm and emotional story, and story that trembles the heart". Sometimes, stories were created using topics such as mother, love, and sea. Specific examples will be omitted due to limited space.

3.1.3. Person's Fragrance 1

An opportunity to become accustomed to actual writing through writing letters, greeting cards, introductory letter, invitation card, and thank you card. Continued practice of writing letter or postcards 10 minutes of every class to family members, friends and close were carried out. A great method is writing postcards which is interesting and entertaining way to practice writing skills without the feeling of responsibility, and to essentialize writing in daily lives. It is recommended for practice of genuine writing training and to reduce the burden of writing. Addition of speaking with the writing also increases the effect of learning.

3.1.4. Our group attendance

Group activity takes up large portion of the class, so familiarizing and sharing fellowship have an important influence on the future class progression and learning. Thus after the groups are organized, group leader is decided, and at the group meeting which is organized by the leader, group name and group song are chosen, and at the next class, they are presented with rhythmic movement. For individual assignment, students are to write responses to the group meeting with the title " time with the group leader". Some example of group names includes "사과에 못 박으면, 골뱅이 무침, 함봐주조, 젠따이호시, 5조 Family and 쌈박 Family, 현옥과 벌떼들"

3.1.5. Land of fairy tales

Fairy tales are read in this session. A Fairy tale is chosen as a group and scripts are made accordingly, and as each members of the group are given a part, reading is performed. Instead of just reading the fairy tales, simple skit, news desk, or current affair debate program can be acted out. More enjoyment than expected is experienced. Growth in ability to present, co-operation as a group and strengthening of ability to understand others are achieved. Warmth and heart widening is reported in responses. Fairy tales differ from literatures intended for adults. It is a standard literature because its intended audience differ and it repeats specific pattern. Since its target audience is children, it carries different specificity to that of novels. It is a great opportunity for the readers and listeners to work on reading together.

3.1.6. Group Newspaper

This is done as final assignment. The group members work as reporter and the group leader as the editor and together publishes newspaper. Reports are investigated and the covered articles are written, asking around, restaurants and copy places nearby school are used as the advertisement, and variety of ideas are added to resemble the actual newspaper. The newspaper may include pictures, surveys and part on campaigns. The newspaper may be published according to variety of themes such as environmental, social, cultural issues, literature, and even topics like washroom. Last semester, a "Tongsi-Ilbo" with the theme on washroom was very popular.

This group newspaper project is also an opportunity to organize writings students have composed during the semester. Group members gather their written works, and if additional writings are required, they may in a process of investigation, write reports or even receive help from outside. Newspaper project is a very useful tool in that it helps the students to practice variety of different types of writing skills. Also having the theme allows the students to focus their research on one theme, organize and rearrange the information, thus enhancing the students' ability to gather information, and ability to judge the content of information according to its significance, and depending on the relativity of the content rearranging them is also practiced.

3.2. Actual examplees of writing guide

3.2.1. Vocabulary training and sentence writing lesson

Skill of acquiring vocabulary is the basic assets of constructing a complete sentence. Precise understanding of each vocabulary, and familiarizing with its use are the basis for constructing sentence structures accurately, and so it is an essential process of basic step in learning specific language. For more effective learning on the following subject, abstracting vocabulary with basic activity such as finding definition of vocabulary, and organizing its use are necessary. Below are examples of organized discussions of beginners in writing and examples that can be applied to korean learners in foreign language.

In relation to vocabulary teaching, most representatively used is the picture cards. If games such as "connect the last word" is applied with the picture cards, not only will it double its effectiveness, but is enjoyable as a game. It could also gain additional recognition as "enjoyable lesson time" In a lesson process, "enjoyment" is an important factor since it provides interest to the learners and it eases the studying process. A game like "connect the last word" achieves such role and thus enhancing the effect of learning.

The picture cards are made at the preparation stage of the lesson. If difficulty occurs in expressing some of the picture, use of photographs is also a good idea. On the back of the picture cards, the korean vocabulary is written. In preparing the cards, it should be taken into consideration that the vocabulary on the card can be used in playing "connect the last word." For example, "나무, 무궁화, 화산, 산소, 소립자, 자전거, 거북이, 이사, 사진기, 기차, 차표..." and it should be lined up in above order. It will be more effective if variety of models are made aside from the examples given. The vocabulary level must also be considered.

During the lesson, if the number of players for the game consists of teacher, student 1, and student 2, to begin the game, the picture cards are placed where the learners can see. The teacher picks the starting card. (If example above is followed, the card with picture of "나무" is chosen) Then, student 1 picks a card that begin with last sound of the vocabulary chosen by the teacher. (Following above example, "무궁화") In same order, student 1 and 2 can take turns or the teacher may participate. The player who picks the wrong card loses the game.

Variety of different changes can be added to games like "connect the last word". Some examples are; arrange words that begin with specific letter, vocabulary that contains exact same second letter, or find words that contains same last letter, etc. Likewise, the method of game and level of difficulty can be modified. In this case, basic procedure of the game may stay the same. Once the students become more familiar with the game the game may be played without the picture cards.

Taking one step further, with a partner charade using description or actions can be played. This game is universally played. Application of such game has its means in enhancing the effectiveness of learning. Moreover, games like "describing idioms and guessing them" "guessing idioms using pictures" can also be used.

Next is the method of using vocabulary cards. It is a game that trains the ability to acquire numerous vocabulary and grow the ability to construct sentence structure. By collecting vocabulary with specific definition, using them in creating complete sentence and in that process acquiring definite meaning of the vocabulary and in the process of associating the vocabulary acquiring part of speech and the component of the sentence, the properties of grammar is understood. These are the means and purpose of the game.

For game materials, several decks of vocabulary cards are required. It is relevant to prepare variety of different part of speech. Cards are equipped with vocabulary that are related to nouns, declinable words, auxiliary words, modifiers, and punctuation marks. Nouns consists of common nouns, abstract nouns, and proper nouns. In declinable words, tenses, honorific methods, and grammatical voice should variously appear. It is important to include "먹는다" with "먹었다", "먹었니?" and "드신다", "드셨어요? "드세요" etc . As auxiliary words, 은, 는, 이, 가, 을, 를, should be prepared, and for punctuation marks period, question mark, comma, exclamation mark, quotation mark are included.

Now, let's take a look at the learning process. First, using the vocabulary cards, sentences are made with blanks on the space where auxiliary words should go. Then p using the appropriate cards, fill in the blanks is practiced. Same process is repeated with verb modifier and punctuation marks. In an example "[나]○ [어제] [밥]○ [먹었다][.]", "는" and "은" can be used in that order to complete the sentence structures. It is also good practice for the learner to participate in making the question sentences.

Also, when constructing sentences using vocabulary cards, mixing incorrect cards so that the students can correct the sentence is another good activity. Picking out the wrong cards and putting in the right cards can be very effective in accurately structuring sentences. For example, "[나][가][밥][을][내일][먹었다][.]" In the process of accurately correcting the sentence in various forms like, ①"[나][는][밥][을][내일][먹을 것이다][.]", ②"[나][는][내일][밥][을][먹을 것이다][.]" or ③"[나][는][밥][을][어제][먹었다][.]", ④"[나][는][어제][밥][을][먹었다][.]" will enhance sentence organization.

For next step, one or two appropriate cards are presented, and the students are to compose a sentence consisting of presented vocabulary. This practices the basis for use of creative sentences. This is more advanced in that complete understanding of the definition of the vocabulary as well as its use, components of the sentence and their relation is required as fundamental foundation. The method is more meaningful because students become familiarized with grammar and practices its use.

An example of lesson that follows above methods are as follows. In a question that uses [축구] and [아주] to construct a sentence, ①"[나][는][축구][를][아주][좋아한다][.]", ②"[홍명보][는][축구][를][아주][잘한다][.]", ③"[아주][먼][옛날][에는][축구][가][없었다][.]" 또는 ④"[축구][공][이][아주][멀리][날아갔다][.]" etc, make up variety of sentences.

Card fishing is another activity that practices the learning of sentence structure. The effectiveness of the game are as follows; by relating the act of fishing out a vocabulary from an aquarium to an act of finding a vocabulary from the dictionary pool in the brain enhances the ability to associate through experience and thus result in effective learning. Game materials to be prepared are large aquarium containing water, card lminated and glued to metal, and magnet hook fishing rod.

There are variety of ways the lesson can be carried out. Fishing out mixture of picture and vocabulary cards from the aquarium and arranging them to complete a sentence would be one method. Another method is with sentence that is already complete, but the sentence is cut into phrases, and these phrases are fished out and arranged so that sentences are meaningful. Fishing out vocabulary from aquarium that contains only the vocabulary cards and using them to construct simple sentence is also another method (Example, [물고기] → "물고기를 보니까 푸른 바다가 생각난다.") Through these series process, definition and the use of the vocabulary is understood and ability to form sentences are emphasized.

3.2.2. Formation of paragrahs and writing lesson

The units of writing structure can be divided into vocabulary, sentences and paragraphs. Of them, paragraph is the basic unit in constructing literature, and in regards to the content, it is considered as a lump of thoughts. Since a literature consist of arrangement of several paragraphs, practice in paragraph writing is the core part of enhancing writing skills. Being able to construct a paragraph so that each paragraphs are definite and equal is the requisite in writing a good literature. If a paragraph is definite, balance between writing and reading also becomes definite and thus more effective in idea communication. Below are several model examples of writing paragraphs.

First, writing paragraph can be practiced using newspapers or photographs on magazines. Writing activity using imagination on the subject of provided materials is carried out. As source of material only few pictures from newspaper or magazine are provided. For example, [picture1]: Teenagers enthusiastically playing soccer, [picture2] national soccer team training at the stadium, [picture 3] world cup semi-final, [picture 4]: cheering of red devils with the public, [picture 5]: content family portrait.

Writing tactic in such activity is first deciding on the theme. Example below has the theme "what I dream of becoming in the future". The orders of the picture must also be decided and then arranged and organized. Next step is the actual writing. In this case, writing is carried out by choosing a theme for the provided picture. Different approach to the above method is to decide on the theme first, then picking out the picture that best suits the theme chosen. In the latter case, the title of the activity becomes "imaginary writing according to the provided theme". Adaptation is also possible. Below is a example of writing that uses [picture 1] to [picture 5] described above.

My dream is to become a soccer player. My love for soccer began in elementary school and I actively played in the school team, and will continue to do so in middle school, high school and with the enthusiasm I have [picture1], by the time I reach my freshmen year, I will be scouted by the national team. Then I'll participate in difficult training that will prepare me for the approaching world cup. [picture 2]. The training is very difficult and is a hard work, but I will finish it safely and will play for the world cup. My role in the team will provide chance for my country to enter the finals. [picture3] The fact that our country has entered the finals, will drive the the whole country into a frenzy. [picture 4] After the world cup, I'll return home and spend quality time with my family.[picture 5]

- Moon shin-hae

Above example is when the property of the picture was used in writing. Photograph captures and pauses a situation. Photograph is stationed in a pause mode at the time and space of picture taken. Inside the photograph is the "stationed time and space" and outside is the continuously changing space and time and these are the fixed conditions. Therefore, to the people outside of the picture, the world inside the picture can be portrayed as a memory or imagination. It is only logical for those standing in front of the picture to depend on the world of imagination. Such property of the picture enhances imagination, logic, reasoning and organization and this results in effective learning.

In observing the above example, there is no way for us to know the actual events that occur in the picture unless we were in it. So, the students are instructed to predict and imagine the events that may have occured before and after the picture, and are to express in writing with logical sequence. Also, because pictures capture an actual incidents that might have been simply missed by the observers, it is more concrete and sensational. Making full use of these qualities of the pictures, the picture acts as the outline for the writing and allow the writer to manifest the vague thoughts into writing.

For a following activity, writing with abstract subject can be used. It differs from materials like pictures which is concrete stationed in that it describes an object which the writer sees and finds in a continuous time and space. The writing is usually descriptive or exposition. There is much more freedom in the writing structure because the writers vision definitely emerges. At the same time, it is more advanced than the formal activity with the photographs since it requires deeper thinking. Below is a writing based on "Spring sight of Bokhyun-dong"

Entering and attending University brought feeling of fear and unfamiliarity as I faced new obstacles rather than the nervous and expectation which the freshmen usually feels. These feelings of anxiety strengthened as I looked at the withered trees between the buildings and grass that froze into hard ice. However, as the end of March approached, these feelings lessened and I was greeted with gentle spring that came over the campus. The trees that mainly consisted of achromatic colours revealed its sprouts, and the colourful flowers began to stain all around the school. The flowers of spring season at the Bokyun campus making it all the more beautiful is the cherry blossom. Pink shades of cherry blossom spread all over revealing its beauty, but flowers of cherry blossom that fall at the passing of slight spring breeze adds and acknowledges the true beauty of spring season. Few flower petals that falls at the slightest gentle spring breeze is elegant putting the viewers into a state of trance. Below the pink cherry blossoms are yellow forsythias. Forsythias with colours that are much more bright yellow than a chick, will boasts its colour within the cherryblossom. As the sun reflects on new fresh green leaves of nameless plants, its greenness shines to the point of blinding its viewers.

- Moon Shin-hae

3.2.3. Renewing the understanding of 'Korean Writing and Speaking Practice'

Writing a literature does not differ much from arranging each paragraphs. It is the same notion as displaying and arranging merchandise into different floors in a department store. Groceries, miscellaneous goods, clothing, and sports equipments are grouped and displayed in categories on different floors and arranged with consideration of minimizing consumers' line of flow. That is an expedient that provides facility where shopping time is minimized and merchandises are quickly and easily found. Hence, at the same time, it is returned with increase in sales. Rational arrangement of department is that much more important.

The arrangement of counters and floors in a department store is related to the arrangement of paragraphs and its smaller parts. The co-relation between easy and convenient access to the merchandise by the consumer and the increase in department sales can be directly applied to the writing. In writing, the role of writer is to organize and arrange the paragraphs so that the content of the writing is easily and clearly understood by its readers. Keeping its readers in mind when composing a literature is a good method of easy and clear writing . Paragraph writing is the core factor in such practice.

Until now, 'listening' and 'speaking', its necessity in the field of education was poorly recognized and sometimes even fully neglected. It was because these two functions were seen as problems in language acquirement. As pointed out is many discussions, fluent 'speaking' and 'listening' of posteriori learned results are problems that should be dealt by the education. However, excluding of 'speaking' and 'listening' from education can not be overlooked. In the formal writing, necessity to place 'speaking' and 'listening' as the basic domain, especially in relation to the function of language use is the outlook presented. 'Listening' ability is the first language activity that occurs in language acquirement process, and 'speaking' is an activity that is most closely related to 'listening'. These colloquial activity is experienced early before entering school. It differs from practice of spelling in 'writing' education.

Thus, renewal of understanding and a teaching-learning step that considers clear process on something that is already experienced. In that case, when compared to other domains, presentation of faster level increase of the education content should be possible. Hence, instead of identifying the four domains as equal learning level, 'speaking-listening' should be considered as the basic domain for the other two, and should be applied to teaching-learning. In relation to the second fact, it is to emphasize that 'speaking-listening' functions as reciprocal operating process. The function of reciprocal operating process can be recognized through model of concrete 'speaking-listening'. That is to say that the ultimate object cannot be achieved through cumulative increase in teaching-learning content that focuses on the domains separately, but that it is essential to have 'speaking-listening' centered model.

In the fore part of the writing in regards to the writing lesson model, it describes a process where the learners become the subject and places the education in the center of discussion. Such process is devoted to the progress rather than the result. During the progress learners become aware of the principle and this ability is promoted. This differs from result focused process where solution extraction is mastered and this process is repeated so that it becomes proficient.

In this aspect, the role of the teacher is also distinguished. Instead of leading from the front, a teacher should be a companion and an advisor walks on the same pace or even one or two steps behind the students. The teacher should have influence on the right direction, such attitude where importance lies in learners' learning progress itself shares the same line of vain with organization theory, and anticipates large portion on recognition organization theory and society organization theory.

4. Conclusion

I explored the ways of Korean education in the paper. The exploration was to suggest the case to be applied in the field. The concept of learner-focused education stems from the necessity to change the paradigm of supplier-focused education which brings about some problems today. It believes that to develop the class model of learner-focused education can be a resolution to the current inefficient education in the field.

When we think about class, we imagine a teacher reads a book and students read after him/her. Now a days the quality and quantity of information is unspeakably various and higher level of education and the needs for education accelerate the speed of change. Unfortunately, our public education is not catching up this speed. This is why we need to change the long standing teacher-focused education.

As one of the ways to realize the learner-focused education I defined the concept of the learner-focused education and looked through the class cases and students' response to it in this paper. And I found that it solves current problems in education that we act out these changes toward education in the field. Students will enjoy studying and taste the joy of scholarship through ①active participation ②creative practice and ③sharing of emotion which were presented as the principles of learner-focused education.

We have to open our closed schoolbooks to satisfy various needs of students. After that, we can make free educational atmosphere for creative work escaping from the fantasy about one only correct answer. It is necessary to revise the concept of a teacher as a deliverer of knowledge. A teacher as a harbinger and a student as a passive receiver ended up as the deprivation of bliss of awareness and creation from a student.

Three principles of the class model discussed through the paper is as follows; learner's active participation in the class, creative working with new idea, and sharing what they learned and felt with others.


References

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6 . Julia Cameron, The right to write, Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1999., 

7 . Linda Flower, Problem-Solving Strategies for Writing, Harcourt Brace & Company, 1993., 

8 . Michael C. Rogers, Clare You and Kyungnyun K. Richards, College Korean = 대학 한국어, Univ. of California Pr., 1992., 

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