2. Feature of the learner-focused education
Though the term learner-focused education is similar to ①consumer-focused ②receiver-focused ③student-focused educations which were already used they are distinguished in this paper. The one-way relation between a teacher and a student in which a teacher delivers knowledge and students only get it is much changed in that those terms induce students to ask questions and to present. However that the teacher-focused education is the ultimate destination people are headed for is not much changed in that still the relationship between a teacher and a student is based on the relationship between a provider and a consumer. Here we have a textbook, designated curriculum, fixed goals and assessment questions accordingly.
But those things do not reflect the taste and aptitude of individual students though it's natural that each student should have different taste and aptitude. Despite the fact that it can't be said which one is superior or which one is inferior about the matter of taste and aptitude, the teacher-focused education does include uniform education and assessment which are already fixed. Suppose the vaccination. Everybody is inoculated with the same amount of the vaccine regardless of the physical constitution of each person. Some might be allergic to that vaccination or some are not. Though each person has a different physical constitution, people expect the same effects of the vaccination.
On the contrary, in the learner-focused education, a learner can choose subjects, teachers, textbooks, and ways of assessment that he wants as the subject of education. This flexibility of the learner-focused education can be applied to a single unit lecture and we can expect the practical effects of it. For instance, "To memorize the 10 suggestions in wring self-introduction", "To write down 5 suggestions in giving a speech", "To write down 5 points in persuasive writing" and so on are not the things to be done in the classroom of the learner-focused education. Rather in that classroom a student can choose very practical subjects such as "To introduce oneself to give a good impression on the parents of the arranged meeting partner", "Writing a self-introduction to apply for the car salesman" and so on. And of course in this case a student can choose the subject that he want among various subjects.
In the learner-focused education, a student excercise his rights as a consumer. This new school paradigm can be named a market type school. In the market, customers are the king. And service industry will get a higher position than anything else in the future. The ideology of the learner-focused education requires the education administration and the attitude of teachers to be transformed in the era of education as a service. The authority given to the teacher and the curriculum is being challenged. So we need diversified educational products to satisfy the various taste of the consumer or the learner. The small quantity batch production in the market economy is also anticipated in the area of education.
In this paradigm the teacher plays a role as a midwife as Socrates told. Teachers help students to produce their own knowledge. The function of school and teacher has to be confined to be an advisor and provider of the surroundings to let students pursue the truth by themselves and taste the joy of academic accomplishment. The learner-focused education is on the assumption that to promote the atmosphere for students to raise questions voluntarily and to be born again as an active quester of the knowledge is the first thing. This is one of our trials to break from the conventional cramming education and the typified image of students as a passive receiver of knowledge.
The research on ｢Amelioration of teaching and learning method to improve self-learning ability｣ conducted at the middle school annexed to the college of education of Kyungsang Univ. showed that the problem solving ability and self-learning ability was proven through amelioration drill of the self-learning ability and self-assessment. And in the research on ｢Amelioration of teaching and learning method to improve the participation of the student｣, it was found to be effective that thinking highly of the role of the student, group activities, and the application of prepared lesson promoted the participation of the student only when assigning of homework, presentation, discussion and teachers are properly used according to each subject.
The research conducted at Dongbu girls' high school, Daegu showed that the practical application of teaching and learning data increased the chances for students to present themselves and improved the self-leading learning ability. The research at the annexed high school to the college of education of Jeonnam Univ. reported that the cooperative learning in a small group formed cooperative attitude and the intrinsic motivation, which Piaget and Brener contended, and finally was helpful to improve the self-learning ability. The research at the middle school and high school annexed to the college of education of Gongju Univ. revealed that the self-learning ability was increased by developing and applying a workbook according to the student's level. The research at the high school annexed to the college of education of Kyungsang Univ. showed that the creative learning ability was promoted by applying the self-leading teaching and learning strategy in various ways. All these researches prove the learner-leading education to be the comparatively superior education.
3. Teaching cases of ‘Korean Writing and Speaking Practice’
3.1. Lesson structures and assignment types
The objective of idea expression lesson is in improving speaking, listening, reading, and writing ability. Similarly narration, composition(practical), sentence theories and facts are also part of the lesson. The content of the classroom lesson mainly focuses on speaking and writing, since the course objective is to improve learner's individual idea expression in Korean. Naturally, speaking, listening, writing and reading can not be seperated. Not only that, but above four generally constitute each other in a lesson. The connection between the four are highly strong that "Training speaking-listening, writing-reading ability" can be the first goal of the lesson.
The discussions on this paragraph are university course lecture which are intact and some parts edited. The goals of the lecture are "My idea can be expressed as precise and refired. My opinions can be conveyed in orderly fashion. My expression can earn the agreement and response of the other party". Also "Confident and honest expression, comfortable and familiar appearance, modest and refined manner, keeping everyday etiquette, repetition of reading, and writing taking pleasure in interchange of information" are used practical assignment for the expression exercise.
The fundamental principle of the course is generally divided in to three forms which are "Participation as the subject. Creating practice, and sharing of emotion." To elaborate on the three forms, first, the learner must participate in the course with positive attitude as the subject not as passive consumer. Secondly, learners must not chase samples, patterns, or even the answers, but always repeatedly practice creating new ideas. Finally, sensations or emotions felt through realization from the lesson should be shared with and spread to others. In other words, (I become the master and personally enjoy, then share the expression with others), and this is the theme of the principle.
The lessons are divided for group and individual activities, however, presentations and lesson preparations are carried out in groups. Because 40-60 students attend a lecture, the divided groups consists of 8-12 students and these groups are lead to participate in preparation meeting before each lecture. In every lecture, each individual students must participate in the idea expression exercise, unfortunately due to the great number of students, it is impossible for each students to be provided with opportunity.
Thus the group study structure is adopted as alternative plan to the problem. As well as the provision of presentation time for group lesson results, the group members are encouraged to suggest or advice each other during individual assignments, so that basis for the following are practiced; group activity presentation, communication, discussion, debate and opinion sharing.
In accordance, in case of group activity, before each in-class presentation, following steps are taken, "① present individual opinion. ② share each other's opinion. ③ gather the opinions and decide." Even when individual assignments are presented, the groups gather before the class and follow similar steps. "① Do the assignments individually. ② Read the assignment as group and share opinions. ③ Polish final draft with reference to comments." Through group activity, the students can inherently practice presenting ideas, opinions, participating in discussion and revising, controlling then gathering ideas.
Setting a goal in the lesson as mentioned above, and maintaining the lesson structure allows the learners to actively participate. The stress is put on the progress rather than on the results. This effort eventually helps the growth of individuality and the ability in individual's interest fields. This reflects the idea that attaches importance to diversity, mutual respect, and forming harmony with others. Following are examples of individual and group lessons in order.
3.1.1. Finding my colour
It is suitable to write personal introductions, recommendations, and resumes at the beginning of semester. To provide opportunity to readjust the future plan and future hopes, assignments like "writing autobiography in advance" or a "biography written by Ahn-dong Ilbo journalist 100 years from now" are good writing activities. Indeed, variety of dreams are poured out. Following are several topics from personal introductions. "Me, holding a crayon, Do you know the holy water?, My past and present, A woman without a topic, Various sides of Jee-hyun, There are three types of people, Please hear my story, Let's appreciate the significance of one second and use it wisely, Dreaming of happy home, and Becoming beautiful me." Below are evaluations, opinions and statements to the personal introduction presentations.
3.1.2. Story pouch
This is time when groups freely choose a topic, then using materials such as things read before, creative writing, newspapers, magazines and internet, present their works. Last semester's presentation included " The most beautiful story in the world, sorrowful yet beautiful story, a story so funny that you would kill to read it, calm and emotional story, and story that trembles the heart". Sometimes, stories were created using topics such as mother, love, and sea. Specific examples will be omitted due to limited space.
3.1.3. Person's Fragrance 1
An opportunity to become accustomed to actual writing through writing letters, greeting cards, introductory letter, invitation card, and thank you card. Continued practice of writing letter or postcards 10 minutes of every class to family members, friends and close were carried out. A great method is writing postcards which is interesting and entertaining way to practice writing skills without the feeling of responsibility, and to essentialize writing in daily lives. It is recommended for practice of genuine writing training and to reduce the burden of writing. Addition of speaking with the writing also increases the effect of learning.
3.1.4. Our group attendance
Group activity takes up large portion of the class, so familiarizing and sharing fellowship have an important influence on the future class progression and learning. Thus after the groups are organized, group leader is decided, and at the group meeting which is organized by the leader, group name and group song are chosen, and at the next class, they are presented with rhythmic movement. For individual assignment, students are to write responses to the group meeting with the title " time with the group leader". Some example of group names includes "사과에 못 박으면, 골뱅이 무침, 함봐주조, 젠따이호시, 5조 Family and 쌈박 Family, 현옥과 벌떼들"
3.1.5. Land of fairy tales
Fairy tales are read in this session. A Fairy tale is chosen as a group and scripts are made accordingly, and as each members of the group are given a part, reading is performed. Instead of just reading the fairy tales, simple skit, news desk, or current affair debate program can be acted out. More enjoyment than expected is experienced. Growth in ability to present, co-operation as a group and strengthening of ability to understand others are achieved. Warmth and heart widening is reported in responses. Fairy tales differ from literatures intended for adults. It is a standard literature because its intended audience differ and it repeats specific pattern. Since its target audience is children, it carries different specificity to that of novels. It is a great opportunity for the readers and listeners to work on reading together.
3.1.6. Group Newspaper
This is done as final assignment. The group members work as reporter and the group leader as the editor and together publishes newspaper. Reports are investigated and the covered articles are written, asking around, restaurants and copy places nearby school are used as the advertisement, and variety of ideas are added to resemble the actual newspaper. The newspaper may include pictures, surveys and part on campaigns. The newspaper may be published according to variety of themes such as environmental, social, cultural issues, literature, and even topics like washroom. Last semester, a "Tongsi-Ilbo" with the theme on washroom was very popular.
This group newspaper project is also an opportunity to organize writings students have composed during the semester. Group members gather their written works, and if additional writings are required, they may in a process of investigation, write reports or even receive help from outside. Newspaper project is a very useful tool in that it helps the students to practice variety of different types of writing skills. Also having the theme allows the students to focus their research on one theme, organize and rearrange the information, thus enhancing the students' ability to gather information, and ability to judge the content of information according to its significance, and depending on the relativity of the content rearranging them is also practiced.
3.2. Actual examplees of writing guide
3.2.1. Vocabulary training and sentence writing lesson
Skill of acquiring vocabulary is the basic assets of constructing a complete sentence. Precise understanding of each vocabulary, and familiarizing with its use are the basis for constructing sentence structures accurately, and so it is an essential process of basic step in learning specific language. For more effective learning on the following subject, abstracting vocabulary with basic activity such as finding definition of vocabulary, and organizing its use are necessary. Below are examples of organized discussions of beginners in writing and examples that can be applied to korean learners in foreign language.
In relation to vocabulary teaching, most representatively used is the picture cards. If games such as "connect the last word" is applied with the picture cards, not only will it double its effectiveness, but is enjoyable as a game. It could also gain additional recognition as "enjoyable lesson time" In a lesson process, "enjoyment" is an important factor since it provides interest to the learners and it eases the studying process. A game like "connect the last word" achieves such role and thus enhancing the effect of learning.
The picture cards are made at the preparation stage of the lesson. If difficulty occurs in expressing some of the picture, use of photographs is also a good idea. On the back of the picture cards, the korean vocabulary is written. In preparing the cards, it should be taken into consideration that the vocabulary on the card can be used in playing "connect the last word." For example, "나무, 무궁화, 화산, 산소, 소립자, 자전거, 거북이, 이사, 사진기, 기차, 차표..." and it should be lined up in above order. It will be more effective if variety of models are made aside from the examples given. The vocabulary level must also be considered.
During the lesson, if the number of players for the game consists of teacher, student 1, and student 2, to begin the game, the picture cards are placed where the learners can see. The teacher picks the starting card. (If example above is followed, the card with picture of "나무" is chosen) Then, student 1 picks a card that begin with last sound of the vocabulary chosen by the teacher. (Following above example, "무궁화") In same order, student 1 and 2 can take turns or the teacher may participate. The player who picks the wrong card loses the game.
Variety of different changes can be added to games like "connect the last word". Some examples are; arrange words that begin with specific letter, vocabulary that contains exact same second letter, or find words that contains same last letter, etc. Likewise, the method of game and level of difficulty can be modified. In this case, basic procedure of the game may stay the same. Once the students become more familiar with the game the game may be played without the picture cards.
Taking one step further, with a partner charade using description or actions can be played. This game is universally played. Application of such game has its means in enhancing the effectiveness of learning. Moreover, games like "describing idioms and guessing them" "guessing idioms using pictures" can also be used.
Next is the method of using vocabulary cards. It is a game that trains the ability to acquire numerous vocabulary and grow the ability to construct sentence structure. By collecting vocabulary with specific definition, using them in creating complete sentence and in that process acquiring definite meaning of the vocabulary and in the process of associating the vocabulary acquiring part of speech and the component of the sentence, the properties of grammar is understood. These are the means and purpose of the game.
For game materials, several decks of vocabulary cards are required. It is relevant to prepare variety of different part of speech. Cards are equipped with vocabulary that are related to nouns, declinable words, auxiliary words, modifiers, and punctuation marks. Nouns consists of common nouns, abstract nouns, and proper nouns. In declinable words, tenses, honorific methods, and grammatical voice should variously appear. It is important to include "먹는다" with "먹었다", "먹었니?" and "드신다", "드셨어요? "드세요" etc . As auxiliary words, 은, 는, 이, 가, 을, 를, should be prepared, and for punctuation marks period, question mark, comma, exclamation mark, quotation mark are included.
Now, let's take a look at the learning process. First, using the vocabulary cards, sentences are made with blanks on the space where auxiliary words should go. Then p using the appropriate cards, fill in the blanks is practiced. Same process is repeated with verb modifier and punctuation marks. In an example "[나]○ [어제] [밥]○ [먹었다][.]", "는" and "은" can be used in that order to complete the sentence structures. It is also good practice for the learner to participate in making the question sentences.
Also, when constructing sentences using vocabulary cards, mixing incorrect cards so that the students can correct the sentence is another good activity. Picking out the wrong cards and putting in the right cards can be very effective in accurately structuring sentences. For example, "[나][가][밥][을][내일][먹었다][.]" In the process of accurately correcting the sentence in various forms like, ①"[나][는][밥][을][내일][먹을 것이다][.]", ②"[나][는][내일][밥][을][먹을 것이다][.]" or ③"[나][는][밥][을][어제][먹었다][.]", ④"[나][는][어제][밥][을][먹었다][.]" will enhance sentence organization.
For next step, one or two appropriate cards are presented, and the students are to compose a sentence consisting of presented vocabulary. This practices the basis for use of creative sentences. This is more advanced in that complete understanding of the definition of the vocabulary as well as its use, components of the sentence and their relation is required as fundamental foundation. The method is more meaningful because students become familiarized with grammar and practices its use.
An example of lesson that follows above methods are as follows. In a question that uses [축구] and [아주] to construct a sentence, ①"[나][는][축구][를][아주][좋아한다][.]", ②"[홍명보][는][축구][를][아주][잘한다][.]", ③"[아주][먼][옛날][에는][축구][가][없었다][.]" 또는 ④"[축구][공][이][아주][멀리][날아갔다][.]" etc, make up variety of sentences.
Card fishing is another activity that practices the learning of sentence structure. The effectiveness of the game are as follows; by relating the act of fishing out a vocabulary from an aquarium to an act of finding a vocabulary from the dictionary pool in the brain enhances the ability to associate through experience and thus result in effective learning. Game materials to be prepared are large aquarium containing water, card lminated and glued to metal, and magnet hook fishing rod.
There are variety of ways the lesson can be carried out. Fishing out mixture of picture and vocabulary cards from the aquarium and arranging them to complete a sentence would be one method. Another method is with sentence that is already complete, but the sentence is cut into phrases, and these phrases are fished out and arranged so that sentences are meaningful. Fishing out vocabulary from aquarium that contains only the vocabulary cards and using them to construct simple sentence is also another method (Example, [물고기] → "물고기를 보니까 푸른 바다가 생각난다.") Through these series process, definition and the use of the vocabulary is understood and ability to form sentences are emphasized.
3.2.2. Formation of paragrahs and writing lesson
The units of writing structure can be divided into vocabulary, sentences and paragraphs. Of them, paragraph is the basic unit in constructing literature, and in regards to the content, it is considered as a lump of thoughts. Since a literature consist of arrangement of several paragraphs, practice in paragraph writing is the core part of enhancing writing skills. Being able to construct a paragraph so that each paragraphs are definite and equal is the requisite in writing a good literature. If a paragraph is definite, balance between writing and reading also becomes definite and thus more effective in idea communication. Below are several model examples of writing paragraphs.
First, writing paragraph can be practiced using newspapers or photographs on magazines. Writing activity using imagination on the subject of provided materials is carried out. As source of material only few pictures from newspaper or magazine are provided. For example, [picture1]: Teenagers enthusiastically playing soccer, [picture2] national soccer team training at the stadium, [picture 3] world cup semi-final, [picture 4]: cheering of red devils with the public, [picture 5]: content family portrait.
Writing tactic in such activity is first deciding on the theme. Example below has the theme "what I dream of becoming in the future". The orders of the picture must also be decided and then arranged and organized. Next step is the actual writing. In this case, writing is carried out by choosing a theme for the provided picture. Different approach to the above method is to decide on the theme first, then picking out the picture that best suits the theme chosen. In the latter case, the title of the activity becomes "imaginary writing according to the provided theme". Adaptation is also possible. Below is a example of writing that uses [picture 1] to [picture 5] described above.
My dream is to become a soccer player. My love for soccer began in elementary school and I actively played in the school team, and will continue to do so in middle school, high school and with the enthusiasm I have [picture1], by the time I reach my freshmen year, I will be scouted by the national team. Then I'll participate in difficult training that will prepare me for the approaching world cup. [picture 2]. The training is very difficult and is a hard work, but I will finish it safely and will play for the world cup. My role in the team will provide chance for my country to enter the finals. [picture3] The fact that our country has entered the finals, will drive the the whole country into a frenzy. [picture 4] After the world cup, I'll return home and spend quality time with my family.[picture 5]
- Moon shin-hae
Above example is when the property of the picture was used in writing. Photograph captures and pauses a situation. Photograph is stationed in a pause mode at the time and space of picture taken. Inside the photograph is the "stationed time and space" and outside is the continuously changing space and time and these are the fixed conditions. Therefore, to the people outside of the picture, the world inside the picture can be portrayed as a memory or imagination. It is only logical for those standing in front of the picture to depend on the world of imagination. Such property of the picture enhances imagination, logic, reasoning and organization and this results in effective learning.
In observing the above example, there is no way for us to know the actual events that occur in the picture unless we were in it. So, the students are instructed to predict and imagine the events that may have occured before and after the picture, and are to express in writing with logical sequence. Also, because pictures capture an actual incidents that might have been simply missed by the observers, it is more concrete and sensational. Making full use of these qualities of the pictures, the picture acts as the outline for the writing and allow the writer to manifest the vague thoughts into writing.
For a following activity, writing with abstract subject can be used. It differs from materials like pictures which is concrete stationed in that it describes an object which the writer sees and finds in a continuous time and space. The writing is usually descriptive or exposition. There is much more freedom in the writing structure because the writers vision definitely emerges. At the same time, it is more advanced than the formal activity with the photographs since it requires deeper thinking. Below is a writing based on "Spring sight of Bokhyun-dong"
Entering and attending University brought feeling of fear and unfamiliarity as I faced new obstacles rather than the nervous and expectation which the freshmen usually feels. These feelings of anxiety strengthened as I looked at the withered trees between the buildings and grass that froze into hard ice. However, as the end of March approached, these feelings lessened and I was greeted with gentle spring that came over the campus. The trees that mainly consisted of achromatic colours revealed its sprouts, and the colourful flowers began to stain all around the school. The flowers of spring season at the Bokyun campus making it all the more beautiful is the cherry blossom. Pink shades of cherry blossom spread all over revealing its beauty, but flowers of cherry blossom that fall at the passing of slight spring breeze adds and acknowledges the true beauty of spring season. Few flower petals that falls at the slightest gentle spring breeze is elegant putting the viewers into a state of trance. Below the pink cherry blossoms are yellow forsythias. Forsythias with colours that are much more bright yellow than a chick, will boasts its colour within the cherryblossom. As the sun reflects on new fresh green leaves of nameless plants, its greenness shines to the point of blinding its viewers.
- Moon Shin-hae
3.2.3. Renewing the understanding of 'Korean Writing and Speaking Practice'
Writing a literature does not differ much from arranging each paragraphs. It is the same notion as displaying and arranging merchandise into different floors in a department store. Groceries, miscellaneous goods, clothing, and sports equipments are grouped and displayed in categories on different floors and arranged with consideration of minimizing consumers' line of flow. That is an expedient that provides facility where shopping time is minimized and merchandises are quickly and easily found. Hence, at the same time, it is returned with increase in sales. Rational arrangement of department is that much more important.
The arrangement of counters and floors in a department store is related to the arrangement of paragraphs and its smaller parts. The co-relation between easy and convenient access to the merchandise by the consumer and the increase in department sales can be directly applied to the writing. In writing, the role of writer is to organize and arrange the paragraphs so that the content of the writing is easily and clearly understood by its readers. Keeping its readers in mind when composing a literature is a good method of easy and clear writing . Paragraph writing is the core factor in such practice.
Until now, 'listening' and 'speaking', its necessity in the field of education was poorly recognized and sometimes even fully neglected. It was because these two functions were seen as problems in language acquirement. As pointed out is many discussions, fluent 'speaking' and 'listening' of posteriori learned results are problems that should be dealt by the education. However, excluding of 'speaking' and 'listening' from education can not be overlooked. In the formal writing, necessity to place 'speaking' and 'listening' as the basic domain, especially in relation to the function of language use is the outlook presented. 'Listening' ability is the first language activity that occurs in language acquirement process, and 'speaking' is an activity that is most closely related to 'listening'. These colloquial activity is experienced early before entering school. It differs from practice of spelling in 'writing' education.
Thus, renewal of understanding and a teaching-learning step that considers clear process on something that is already experienced. In that case, when compared to other domains, presentation of faster level increase of the education content should be possible. Hence, instead of identifying the four domains as equal learning level, 'speaking-listening' should be considered as the basic domain for the other two, and should be applied to teaching-learning. In relation to the second fact, it is to emphasize that 'speaking-listening' functions as reciprocal operating process. The function of reciprocal operating process can be recognized through model of concrete 'speaking-listening'. That is to say that the ultimate object cannot be achieved through cumulative increase in teaching-learning content that focuses on the domains separately, but that it is essential to have 'speaking-listening' centered model.
In the fore part of the writing in regards to the writing lesson model, it describes a process where the learners become the subject and places the education in the center of discussion. Such process is devoted to the progress rather than the result. During the progress learners become aware of the principle and this ability is promoted. This differs from result focused process where solution extraction is mastered and this process is repeated so that it becomes proficient.
In this aspect, the role of the teacher is also distinguished. Instead of leading from the front, a teacher should be a companion and an advisor walks on the same pace or even one or two steps behind the students. The teacher should have influence on the right direction, such attitude where importance lies in learners' learning progress itself shares the same line of vain with organization theory, and anticipates large portion on recognition organization theory and society organization theory.